Section 1. Meteorology

10/12/17 AIM Chapter 7. Safety of Flight Section 1. Meteorology 7−1−1. National Weather Service Aviation Weather Service Program gather weather information to support the needs of the FAA and other users of the system. a. Weather service to aviation is a joint effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense, and various private sector aviation weather service providers. Requirements for all aviation weather products originate from the FAA, which is the Meteorological Authority for the U.S. 5. Several NWS National Centers for Environmental Production (NCEP) provide aviation specific weather forecasts, or select public forecasts which are of interest to pilots and operators. b. NWS meteorologists are assigned to all air route traffic control centers (ARTCC) as part of the Center Weather Service Units (CWSU) as well as the Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC). These meteorologists provide specialized briefings as well as tailored forecasts to support the needs of the FAA and other users of the NAS. (b) The NCEP Central Operations (NCO) is responsible for the operation of many numerical weather prediction models, including those which produce the many wind and temperature aloft forecasts. c. Aviation Products 1. The NWS maintains an extensive surface, upper air, and radar weather observing program; and a nationwide aviation weather forecasting service. 2. Airport observations (METAR and SPECI) supported by the NWS are provided by automated observing systems. 3. Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF) are prepared by 123 NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) for over 700 airports. These forecasts are valid for 24 or 30 hours and amended as required. 4. Inflight aviation advisories (for example, Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMETs) and Airmen’s Meteorological Information (AIRMETs)) are issued by three NWS Meteorological Watch Offices; the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) in Kansas City, MO, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) in Anchorage, AK, and the WFO in Honolulu, HI. Both the AWC and the AAWU issue area forecasts (FA) for selected areas. In addition, NWS meteorologists assigned to most ARTCCs as part of the Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU) provide Center Weather Advisories (CWAs) and Meteorology (a) The Aviation Weather Center (AWC) displays a variety of domestic and international aviation forecast products over the Internet at aviationweather.gov. (c) The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) issues tornado and severe weather watches along with other guidance forecasts. (d) The National Hurricane Center (NHC) issues forecasts on tropical weather systems (for example, hurricanes). (e) The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) provides alerts, watches, warnings and forecasts for space weather events (for example, solar storms) affecting or expected to affect Earth’s environment. (f) The Weather Prediction Center (WPC) provides analysis and forecast products on a national scale including surface pressure and frontal analyses. 6. NOAA operates two Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) which issue forecasts of ash clouds following a volcanic eruption in their area of responsibility. 7. Details on the products provided by the above listed offices and centers is available in FAA Advisory Circular 00-45, Aviation Weather Services. d. Weather element values may be expressed by using different measurement systems depending on several factors, such as whether the weather products will be used by the general public, aviation interests, international services, or a combination of these 7−1−1 7110.65R CHG 2 AIM AIM users. FIG 7−1−1 provides conversion tables for the most used weather elements that will be encountered by pilots. 3/15/07 9/13/18 10/12/17 Internet Access: http://www.1800wxbrief.com For customer service: 1−800−WXBRIEF 7−1−3. Use of Aviation Weather Products 7−1−2. FAA Weather Services a. The FAA provides the Flight Service program, which serves the weather needs of pilots through its flight service stations (FSS) (both government and contract via 1-800-WX-BRIEF) and via the Internet, through Leidos Flight Service. b. The FAA maintains an extensive surface weather observing program. Airport observations (METAR and SPECI) in the U.S. are provided by automated observing systems. Various levels of human oversight of the METAR and SPECI reports and augmentation may be provided at select larger airports by either government or contract personnel qualified to report specified weather elements that cannot be detected by the automated observing system. c. Other Sources of Weather Information 1. Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS) (FSS); and in Alaska, Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) locations, and telephone access to the TWEB (TEL−TWEB) provide continuously updated recorded weather information for short or local flights. Separate paragraphs in this section give additional information regarding these services. REFERENCE− AIM, Paragraph 7−1−8 , Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS) AIM, Paragraph 7−1−9 , Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) (Alaska Only) 2. Weather and aeronautical information are also available from numerous private industry sources on an individual or contract pay basis. Information on how to obtain this service should be available from local pilot organizations. 3. Pilots can access Leidos Flight Services via the Internet. Pilots can receive preflight weather data and file domestic VFR and IFR flight plans. The following is the FAA contract vendor: Leidos Flight Service 7−1−2 a. Air carriers and operators certificated under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 119 are required to use the aeronautical weather information systems defined in the Operations Specifications issued to that certificate holder by the FAA. These systems may utilize basic FAA/National Weather Service (NWS) weather services, contractor− or operator−proprietary weather services and/or Enhanced Weather Information System (EWINS) when approved in the Operations Specifications. As an integral part of this system approval, the procedures for collecting, producing and disseminating aeronautical weather information, as well as the crew member and dispatcher training to support the use of system weather products, must be accepted or approved. b. Operators not certificated under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 119 are encouraged to use FAA/NWS products through Flight Service Stations, Leidos Flight Service, and/or Flight Information Services− Broadcast (FIS−B). c. The suite of available aviation weather product types is expanding, with the development of new sensor systems, algorithms and forecast models. The FAA and NWS, supported by various weather research laboratories and corporations under contract to the Government, develop and implement new aviation weather product types. The FAA’s NextGen Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) facilitates collaboration between the NWS, the FAA, and various industry and research representatives. This collaboration ensures that user needs and technical readiness requirements are met before experimental products mature to operational application. d. The AWRP manages the transfer of aviation weather R&D to operational use through technical review panels and conducting safety assessments to ensure that newly developed aviation weather products meet regulatory requirements and enhance safety. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−1 Weather Elements Conversion Tables Meteorology 7−1−3 7110.65R CHG 2 AIM AIM e. The AWRP review and decision−making process applies criteria to weather products at various stages . The stages are composed of the following: 1. Sponsorship of user needs. 2. R & D and controlled testing. 3. Experimental application. 4. Operational application. f. Pilots and operators should be aware that weather services provided by entities other than FAA, NWS, or their contractors may not meet FAA/NWS quality control standards. Hence, operators and pilots contemplating using such services should request and/or review an appropriate description of services and provider disclosure. This should include, but is not limited to, the type of weather product (for example, current weather or forecast weather), the currency of the product (that is, product issue and valid times), and the relevance of the product. Pilots and operators should be cautious when using unfamiliar products, or products not supported by FAA/NWS technical specifications. NOTE− When in doubt, consult with a FAA Flight Service Station Specialist. g. In addition, pilots and operators should be aware there are weather services and products available from government organizations beyond the scope of the AWRP process mentioned earlier in this section. For example, governmental agencies such as the NWS and the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), or research organizations such as the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) display weather “model data” and “experimental” products which require training and/or expertise to properly interpret and use. These products are developmental prototypes that are subject to ongoing research and can change without notice. Therefore, some data on display by government organizations, or government data on display by independent organizations may be unsuitable for flight planning purposes. Operators and pilots contemplating using such services should request and/or review an appropriate description of services and provider disclosure. This should include, but is not limited to, the type of weather product (for example, current weather or forecast weather), the currency of the product (i.e., product issue and valid times), and the relevance of the product. Pilots and 7−1−4 3/15/07 9/13/18 10/12/17 operators should be cautious when using unfamiliar weather products. NOTE− When in doubt, consult with a FAA Flight Service Station Specialist. h. With increased access to weather products via the public Internet, the aviation community has access to an over whelming amount of weather information and data that support self-briefing. FAA AC 00-45 (current edition) describes the weather products distributed by the NWS. Pilots and operators using the public Internet to access weather from a third party vendor should request and/or review an appropriate description of services and provider disclosure. This should include, but is not limited to, the type of weather product (for example, current weather or forecast weather), the currency of the product (i.e., product issue and valid times), and the relevance of the product. Pilots and operators should be cautious when using unfamiliar weather products and when in doubt, consult with a Flight Service Specialist. i. The development of new weather products, coupled with the termination of some legacy textual and graphical products may create confusion between regulatory requirements and the new products. All flight−related, aviation weather decisions must be based on all available pertinent weather products. As every flight is unique and the weather conditions for that flight vary hour by hour, day to day, multiple weather products may be necessary to meet aviation weather regulatory requirements. Many new weather products now have a Precautionary Use Statement that details the proper use or application of the specific product. j. The FAA has identified three distinct types of weather information available to pilots and operators. 1. Observations. Raw weather data collected by some type of sensor suite including surface and airborne observations, radar, lightning, satellite imagery, and profilers. 2. Analysis. Enhanced depiction and/or interpretation of observed weather data. 3. Forecasts. Predictions of the development and/or movement of weather phenomena based on meteorological observations and various mathematical models. k. Not all sources of aviation weather information are able to provide all three types of weather Meteorology 10/12/17 information. The FAA has determined that operators and pilots may utilize the following approved sources of aviation weather information: 1. Federal Government. The FAA and NWS collect raw weather data, analyze the observations, and produce forecasts. The FAA and NWS disseminate meteorological observations, analyses, and forecasts through a variety of systems. In addition, the Federal Government is the only approval authority for sources of weather observations; for example, contract towers and airport operators may be approved by the Feder al Government to provide weather observations. 2. Enhanced Weather Information System (EWINS). An EWINS is an FAA authorized, proprietary system for tracking, evaluating, reporting, and forecasting the presence or lack of adverse weather phenomena. The FAA authorizes a certificate holder to use an EWINS to produce flight movement forecasts, adverse weather phenomena forecasts, and other meteorological advisories. For more detailed information regarding EWINS, see the Aviation Weather Services Advisory Circular 00−45 and the Flight Standards Information Management System 8900.1. 3. Commercial Weather Information Providers. In general, commercial providers produce proprietary weather products based on NWS/FAA products with formatting and layout modifications but no material changes to the weather information itself. This is also referred to as “repackaging.” In addition, commercial providers may produce analyses, forecasts, and other proprietary weather products that substantially alter the information contained in government−produced products. However, those proprietary weather products that substantially alter government−produced weather products or information, may only be approved for use by 14 CFR Part 121 and Part 135 certificate holders if the commercial provider is EWINS qualified. NOTE− Commercial weather information providers contracted by FAA to provide weather observations, analyses, and forecasts (e.g., contract towers) are included in the Federal Government category of approved sources by virtue of maintaining required technical and quality assurance standards under Federal Government oversight. Meteorology AIM 7−1−4. Graphical Forecasts for Aviation (GFA) a. The GFA website is intended to provide the necessary aviation weather information to give users a complete picture of the weather that may affect flight in the continental United States (CONUS). The website includes observational data, forecasts, and warnings that can be viewed from 14 hours in the past to 15 hours in the future, including thunderstorms, clouds, flight category, precipitation, icing, turbulence, and wind. Hourly model data and forecasts, including information on clouds, flight category, precipitation, icing, turbulence, wind, and graphical output from the National Weather Service’s (NWS) National Digital Forecast Data (NDFD) are available. Wind, icing, and turbulence forecasts are available in 3,000 ft increments from the surface up to 30,000 ft MSL, and in 6,000 ft increments from 30,000 ft MSL to 48,000 ft MSL. Turbulence forecasts are also broken into low (below 18,000 ft MSL) and high (at or above 18,000 ft MSL) graphics. A maximum icing graphic and maximum wind velocity graphic (regardless of altitude) are also available. Built with modern geospatial information tools, users can pan and zoom to focus on areas of greatest interest. Target users are commercial and general aviation pilots, operators, briefers, and dispatchers. b. Weather Products. 1. The Aviation Forecasts include gridded displays of various weather parameters as well as NWS textual weather observations, forecasts, and warnings. Icing, turbulence, and wind gridded products are three−dimensional. Other gridded products are two−dimensional and may represent a “composite” of a three−dimensional weather phenomenon or a surface weather variable, such as horizontal visibility. The following are examples of aviation forecasts depicted on the GFA: (a) Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) (b) Ceiling & Visibility (CIG/VIS) (c) Clouds (d) Precipitation / Weather (PCPN/WX) (e) Thunderstorm (TS) (f) Winds (g) Turbulence (h) Ice 7−1−5 AIM 10/12/17 2. Observations & Warnings (Obs/Warn). The Obs/Warn option provides an option to display weather data for the current time and the previous 14 hours (rounded to the nearest hour). Users may advance through time using the arrow buttons or by clicking on the desired hour. Provided below are the Obs/Warn product tabs available on the GFA website: (a) METAR (b) Precipitation/Weather (PCPN/WX) (c) Ceiling & Visibility (CIG/VIS) (d) Pilot Reports (PIREP) (e) Radar & Satellite (RAD/SAT) 3. The GFA will be continuously updated and available online at http://new.aviationweather.gov/ areafcst. Upon clicking the link above, select INFO on the top right corner of the map display. The next screen presents the option of selecting Overview, Products, and Tutorial. Simply select the tab of interest to explore the enhanced digital and graphical weather products designed to replace the legacy FA. Users should also refer to AC 00−45, Aviation Weather Services, for more detailed information on the GFA. 4. GFA Static Images. Some users with limited internet connectivity may access static images via the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) at: http://www.aviationweather.gov/gfa/plot. There are two static graphical images available, titled Aviation Cloud Forecast and Aviation Surface Forecast. The Aviation Cloud Forecast provides cloud coverage, bases, layers, and tops with Airmet Sierra for mountain obscuration and Airmet Zulu for icing overlaid. The Aviation Surface Forecast provides visibility, weather phenomena, and winds (including wind gusts) with Airmet Sierra for instrument flight rules conditions and Airmet Tango for sustained surface winds of 30 knots or more overlaid. These images are presented on ten separate maps providing forecast views for the entire CONUS on one and nine regional views which provide more detail for the user. They are updated every 3 hours and provide forecast snapshots for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 hours into the future. (See FIG 7−1−2 and FIG 7−1−3.) FIG 7−1−2 Aviation Surface Forecast 7−1−6 Meteorology 9/13/18 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−3 Aviation Cloud Forecast 7−1−5. Preflight Briefing a. Flight Service Stations (FSS) are the primary sources for obtaining preflight briefings and to file flight plans by phone or the Internet. Flight Service Specialists are qualified and certified as Pilot Weather Briefers by the FAA. They are not authorized to make original forecasts, but are authorized to translate and interpret available forecasts and reports directly into terms describing the weather conditions which can be expected along the flight route and at the destination. Three basic types of preflight briefings (Standard, Abbreviated, and Outlook) are available to serve the pilot’s specific needs. Pilots should specify to the briefer the type of briefing they want, along with their appropriate background information. This will enable the briefer to tailor the information to the pilot’s intended flight. The following paragraphs describe the types of briefings available and the information provided in each briefing. REFERENCE− AIM, Paragraph 5−1−1 , Preflight Preparation, for items that are required. b. Standard Briefing. You should request a Standard Briefing any time you are planning a flight and you have not received a previous briefing or have not received preliminary information through mass dissemination media; for example, TIBS, TWEB (Alaska only), etc. International data may be Meteorology inaccurate or incomplete. If you are planning a flight outside of U.S. controlled airspace, the briefer will advise you to check data as soon as practical after entering foreign airspace, unless you advise that you have the international cautionary advisory. The briefer will automatically provide the following information in the sequence listed, except as noted, when it is applicable to your proposed flight. 1. Adverse Conditions. Significant meteorological and/or aeronautical information that might influence the pilot to alter or cancel the proposed flight; for example, hazardous weather conditions, airport closures, air traffic delays, etc. Pilots should be especially alert for current or forecast weather that could reduce flight minimums below VFR or IFR conditions. Pilots should also be alert for any reported or forecast icing if the aircraft is not certified for operating in icing conditions. Flying into areas of icing or weather below minimums could have disastrous results. 2. VFR Flight Not Recommended. When VFR flight is proposed and sky conditions or visibilities are present or forecast, surface or aloft, that, in the briefer’s judgment, would make flight under VFR doubtful, the briefer will describe the conditions, describe the affected locations, and use the phrase “VFR flight not recommended.” This 7−1−7 AIM 10/12/17 recommendation is advisory in nature. The final decision as to whether the flight can be conducted safely rests solely with the pilot. Upon receiving a “VFR flight not recommended” statement, the non−IFR rated pilot will need to make a “go or no go” decision. This decision should be based on weighing the current and forecast weather conditions against the pilot’s experience and ratings. The aircraft’s equipment, capabilities and limitations should also be considered. NOTE− Pilots flying into areas of minimal VFR weather could encounter unforecasted lowering conditions that place the aircraft outside the pilot’s ratings and experience level. This could result in spatial disorientation and/or loss of control of the aircraft. 3. Synopsis. A brief statement describing the type, location and movement of weather systems and/or air masses which might affect the proposed flight. NOTE− These first 3 elements of a briefing may be combined in any order when the briefer believes it will help to more clearly describe conditions. 4. Current Conditions. Reported weather conditions applicable to the flight will be summarized from all available sources; e.g., METARs/ SPECIs, PIREPs, RAREPs. This element will be omitted if the proposed time of departure is beyond 2 hours, unless the information is specifically requested by the pilot. 5. En Route Forecast. Forecast en route conditions for the proposed route are summarized in logical order; i.e., departure/climbout, en route, and descent. (Heights are MSL, unless the contractions “AGL” or “CIG” are denoted indicating that heights are above ground.) 6. Destination Forecast. The destination forecast for the planned ETA. Any significant changes within 1 hour before and after the planned arrival are included. 7. Winds Aloft. Forecast winds aloft will be provided using degrees of the compass. The briefer will interpolate wind directions and speeds between levels and stations as necessary to provide expected conditions at planned altitudes. (Heights are MSL.) Temperature information will be provided on request. 8. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs). 7−1−8 (a) Available NOTAM (D) information pertinent to the proposed flight, including special use airspace (SUA) NOTAMs for restricted areas, aerial refueling, and night vision goggles (NVG). NOTE− Other SUA NOTAMs (D), such as military operations area (MOA), military training route (MTR), and warning area NOTAMs, are considered “upon request” briefing items as indicated in paragraph 7−1−4b10(a). (b) Prohibited Areas P−40, P−49, P−56, and the special flight rules area (SFRA) for Washington, DC. (c) FSS briefers do not provide FDC NOTAM information for special instrument approach procedures unless specifically asked. Pilots authorized by the FAA to use special instrument approach procedures must specifically request FDC NOTAM information for these procedures. NOTE− 1. NOTAM information may be combined with current conditions when the briefer believes it is logical to do so. 2. NOTAM (D) information and FDC NOTAMs which have been published in the Notices to Airmen Publication are not included in pilot briefings unless a review of this publication is specifically requested by the pilot. For complete flight information you are urged to review the printed NOTAMs in the Notices to Airmen Publication and the Chart Supplement U.S. in addition to obtaining a briefing. 9. ATC Delays. Any known ATC delays and flow control advisories which might affect the proposed flight. 10. Pilots may obtain the following from flight service station briefers upon request: (a) Information on SUA and SUA−related airspace, except those listed in paragraph 7−1−4b8. NOTE− 1. For the purpose of this paragraph, SUA and related airspace includes the following types of airspace: alert area, military operations area (MOA), warning area, and air traffic control assigned airspace (ATCAA). MTR data includes the following types of airspace: IFR training routes (IR), VFR training routes (VR), and slow training routes (SR). 2. Pilots are encouraged to request updated information from ATC facilities while in flight. (b) A review of the Notices to Airmen Publication for pertinent NOTAMs and Special Notices. Meteorology 10/12/17 (c) Approximate density altitude data. (d) Information regarding such items as air traffic services and rules, customs/immigration procedures, ADIZ rules, search and rescue, etc. (e) GPS RAIM availability for 1 hour before to 1 hour after ETA or a time specified by the pilot. (f) Other assistance as required. c. Abbreviated Briefing. Request an Abbreviated Briefing when you need information to supplement mass disseminated data, update a previous briefing, or when you need only one or two specific items. Provide the briefer with appropriate background information, the time you received the previous information, and/or the specific items needed. You should indicate the source of the information already received so that the briefer can limit the briefing to the information that you have not received, and/or appreciable changes in meteorological/aeronautical conditions since your previous briefing. To the extent possible, the briefer will provide the information in the sequence shown for a Standard Briefing. If you request only one or two specific items, the briefer will advise you if adverse conditions are present or forecast. (Adverse conditions contain both meteorological and/or aeronautical information.) Details on these conditions will be provided at your request. International data may be inaccurate or incomplete. If you are planning a flight outside of U.S. controlled airspace, the briefer will advise you to check data as soon as practical after entering foreign airspace, unless you advise that you have the international cautionary advisory. d. Outlook Briefing. You should request an Outlook Briefing whenever your proposed time of departure is six or more hours from the time of the briefing. The briefer will provide available forecast data applicable to the proposed flight. This type of briefing is provided for planning purposes only. You should obtain a Standard or Abbreviated Briefing prior to departure in order to obtain such items as adverse conditions, current conditions, updated forecasts, winds aloft and NOTAMs, etc. e. When filing a flight plan only, you will be asked if you require the latest information on adverse conditions pertinent to the route of flight. Meteorology AIM f. Inflight Briefing. You are encouraged to obtain your preflight briefing by telephone or in person before departure. In those cases where you need to obtain a preflight briefing or an update to a previous briefing by radio, you should contact the nearest FSS to obtain this information. After communications have been established, advise the specialist of the type briefing you require and provide appropriate background information. You will be provided information as specified in the above paragraphs, depending on the type of briefing requested. En Route advisories tailored to the phase of flight that begins after climb-out and ends with descent to land are provided upon pilot request. Pilots are encouraged to provide a continuous exchange of information on weather, winds, turbulence, flight visibility, icing, etc., between pilots and inflight specialists. Pilots should report good weather as well as bad, and confirm expected conditions as well as unexpected. Remember that weather conditions can change rapidly and that a “go or no go” decision, as mentioned in paragraph 7−1−4b2, should be assessed at all phases of flight. g. Following any briefing, feel free to ask for any information that you or the briefer may have missed or are not understood. This way, the briefer is able to present the information in a logical sequence, and lessens the chance of important items being overlooked. 7−1−6. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories a. Background 1. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories are forecasts to advise en route aircraft of development of potentially hazardous weather. Inflight aviation weather advisories in the conterminous U.S. are issued by the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) in Kansas City, MO, as well as 20 Center Weather Service Units (CWSU) associated with ARTCCs. AWC also issues advisories for portions of the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, which are under the control of ARTCCs with Oceanic flight information regions (FIRs). The Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Honolulu issues advisories for the Hawaiian Islands and a large portion of the Pacific Ocean. In Alaska, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) issues inflight aviation weather advisories along with the Anchorage CWSU. All heights are 7−1−9 AIM 10/12/17 referenced MSL, except in the case of ceilings (CIG) which indicate AGL. 2. There are four types of inflight aviation weather advisories: the SIGMET, the Convective SIGMET, the AIRMET (text or graphical product), and the Center Weather Advisory (CWA). All of these advisories use the same location identifiers (either VORs, airports, or well−known geographic areas) to describe the hazardous weather areas. 3. The Severe Weather Watch Bulletins (WWs), (with associated Alert Messages) (AWW) supplements these Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories. b. SIGMET G−AIRMET) (WS)/AIRMET (WA or SIGMETs/AIRMET text (WA) products are issued corresponding to the Area Forecast (FA) areas described in FIG 7−1−4 and FIG 7−1−5. The maximum forecast period is 4 hours for SIGMETs and 6 hours for AIRMETs. The G−AIRMET is issued over the CONUS every 6 hours, valid at 3−hour increments through 12 hours with optional forecasts possible during the first 6 hours. The first 6 hours of the G−AIRMET correspond to the 6−hour period of the AIRMET. SIGMETs and AIRMETs are considered “widespread” because they must be either affecting or be forecasted to affect an area of at least 3,000 square miles at any one time. However, if the total area to be affected during the forecast period is very large, it could be that in actuality only a small portion of this total area would be affected at any one time. 1. SIGMETs/AIRMET (or G−AIRMET) for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) SIGMETs/AIRMET text products for the CONUS are issued corresponding to the areas in FIG 7−1−4. The maximum forecast period for a CONUS SIGMET is 4 hours and 6 hours for CONUS AIRMETs. The G−AIRMET is issued over the CONUS every 6 hours, valid at 3−hour increments through 12 hours with optional forecasts possible during the first 6 hours. The first 6 hours of the G−AIRMET correspond to the 6−hour period of the AIRMET. SIGMETs and AIRMETs are considered “widespread” because they must be either affecting or be forecasted to affect an area of at least 3,000 square miles at any one time. However, if the total area to be affected during the forecast period is very large, it could be that in actuality only a small portion 7−1−10 of this total area would be affected at any one time. Only SIGMETs for the CONUS are for non-convective weather. The U.S. issues a special category of SIGMETs for convective weather called Convective SIGMETs. 2. SIGMETs/AIRMETs for Alaska Alaska SIGMETs are valid for up to 4 hours, except for Volcanic Ash Cloud SIGMETs which are valid for up to 6 hours. Alaska AIRMETs are valid for up to 8 hours. 3. SIGMETs/AIRMETs for Hawaii and U.S. FIRs in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Western Atlantic and Eastern and Central Pacific Oceans These SIGMETs are valid for up to 4 hours, except SIGMETs for Tropical Cyclones and Volcanic Ash Clouds, which are valid for up to 6 hours. AIRMETs are issued for the Hawaiian Islands and are valid for up to 6 hours. No AIRMETs are issued for U.S. FIRs in the the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Western Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. c. SIGMET A SIGMET advises of weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraft. SIGMETs are unscheduled products that are valid for 4 hours. However, SIGMETs associated with tropical cyclones and volcanic ash clouds are valid for 6 hours. Unscheduled updates and corrections are issued as necessary. 1. In the CONUS, SIGMETs are issued when the following phenomena occur or are expected to occur: (a) Severe icing not associated with thunderstorms. (b) Severe or extreme turbulence or clear air turbulence (CAT) not associated with thunderstorms. (c) Widespread dust storms or sandstorms lowering surface visibilities to below 3 miles. (d) Volcanic ash. 2. In Alaska and Hawaii, SIGMETs are also issued for: (a) Tornadoes. (b) Lines of thunderstorms. (c) Embedded thunderstorms. (d) Hail greater than or equal to 3/4 inch in diameter. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM 3. SIGMETs are identified by an alphabetic designator from November through Yankee excluding Sierra and Tango. (Sierra, Tango, and Zulu are reserved for AIRMET text [WA] products; G−AIRMETS do not use the Sierra, Tango, or Zulu designators.) The first issuance of a SIGMET will be labeled as UWS (Urgent Weather SIGMET). Subsequent issuances are at the forecaster’s discretion. Issuance for the same phenomenon will be sequentially numbered, using the original designator until the phenomenon ends. For example, the first issuance in the Chicago (CHI) FA area for phenomenon moving from the Salt Lake City (SLC) FA area will be SIGMET Papa 3, if the previous two issuances, Papa 1 and Papa 2, had been in the SLC FA area. Note that no two different phenomena across the country can have the same alphabetic designator at the same time. EXAMPLE− Example of a SIGMET: BOSR WS 050600 SIGMET ROMEO 2 VALID UNTIL 051000 ME NH VT FROM CAR TO YSJ TO CON TO MPV TO CAR OCNL SEV TURB BLW 080 EXP DUE TO STG NWLY FLOW. CONDS CONTG BYD 1000Z. d. Convective SIGMET (WST) 1. Convective SIGMETs are issued in the conterminous U.S. for any of the following: (a) Severe thunderstorm due to: (1) Surface winds greater than or equal to 50 knots. (2) Hail at the surface greater than or equal to 3/4 inches in diameter. (3) Tornadoes. (b) Embedded thunderstorms. (c) A line of thunderstorms. (d) Thunderstorms producing precipitation greater than or equal to heavy precipitation affecting Meteorology 40 percent or more of an area at least 3,000 square miles. 2. Any convective SIGMET implies severe or greater turbulence, severe icing, and low−level wind shear. A convective SIGMET may be issued for any convective situation that the forecaster feels is hazardous to all categories of aircraft. 3. Convective SIGMET bulletins are issued for the western (W), central (C), and eastern (E) United States. (Convective SIGMETs are not issued for Alaska or Hawaii.) The areas are separated at 87 and 107 degrees west longitude with sufficient overlap to cover most cases when the phenomenon crosses the boundaries. Bulletins are issued hourly at H+55. Special bulletins are issued at any time as required and updated at H+55. If no criteria meeting convective SIGMET requirements are observed or forecasted, the message “CONVECTIVE SIGMET... NONE” will be issued for each area at H+55. Individual convective SIGMETs for each area (W, C, E) are numbered sequentially from number one each day, beginning at 00Z. A convective SIGMET for a continuing phenomenon will be reissued every hour at H+55 with a new number. The text of the bulletin consists of either an observation and a forecast or just a forecast. The forecast is valid for up to 2 hours. EXAMPLE− CONVECTIVE SIGMET 44C VALID UNTIL 1455Z AR TX OK FROM 40NE ADM-40ESE MLC-10W TXK-50WNW LFK-40ENE SJT-40NE ADM AREA TS MOV FROM 26025KT. TOPS ABV FL450. OUTLOOK VALID 061455-061855 FROM 60WSW OKC-MLC-40N TXK-40WSW IGB-VUZ-MGM-HRV-60S BTR-40N IAH-60SW SJT-40ENE LBB-60WSW OKC WST ISSUANCES EXPD. REFER TO MOST RECENT ACUS01 KWNS FROM STORM PREDICTION CENTER FOR SYNOPSIS AND METEOROLOGICAL DETAILS 7−1−11 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−4 SIGMET and AIRMET Locations − Conterminous United States FIG 7−1−5 Hawaii Area Forecast Locations 7−1−12 Meteorology 10/12/17 e. SIGMET Outside the CONUS 1. Three NWS offices have been designated by ICAO as Meteorological Watch Offices (MWOs). These offices are responsible for issuing SIGMETs for designated areas outside the CONUS that include Alaska, Hawaii, portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. 2. The offices which issue international SIGMETs are: (a) The AWC in Kansas City, Missouri. (b) The AAWU in Anchorage, Alaska. (c) The WFO in Honolulu, Hawaii. 3. SIGMETs for outside the CONUS are issued for 6 hours for volcanic ash clouds, 6 hours for tropical cyclones (e.g. hurricanes and tropical storms), and 4 hours for all other events. Like the CONUS SIGMETs, SIGMETs for outside the CONUS are also identified by an alphabetic designator from Alpha through Mike and are numbered sequentially until that weather phenomenon ends. The criteria for an international SIGMET are: (a) Thunderstorms occurring in lines, embedded in clouds, or in large areas producing tornadoes or large hail. (b) Tropical cyclones. (c) Severe icing. (d) Severe or extreme turbulence. (e) Dust storms and sandstorms lowering visibilities to less than 3 miles. (f) Volcanic ash. EXAMPLE− Example of SIGMET Outside the U.S.: WSNT06 KKCI 022014 SIGA0F KZMA KZNY TJZS SIGMET FOXTROT 3 VALID 022015/030015 KKCI− MIAMI OCEANIC FIR NEW YORK OCEANIC FIR SAN JUAN FIR FRQ TS WI AREA BOUNDED BY 2711N6807W 2156N6654W 2220N7040W 2602N7208W 2711N6807W. TOPS TO FL470. MOV NE 15KT. WKN. BASED ON SAT AND LTG OBS. MOSHER f. AIRMET 1. AIRMETs (WAs) are advisories of significant weather phenomena but describe conditions at Meteorology AIM intensities lower than those which require the issuance of SIGMETs. AIRMETs are intended for dissemination to all pilots in the preflight and en route phase of flight to enhance safety. AIRMET information is available in two formats: text bulletins (WA) and graphics (G−AIRMET). Both formats meet the criteria of paragraph 7−1−3i and are issued on a scheduled basis every 6 hours beginning at 0245 UTC. Unscheduled updates and corrections are issued as necessary. AIRMETs contain details about IFR, extensive mountain obscuration, turbulence, strong surface winds, icing, and freezing levels. 2. There are three AIRMETs: Sierra, Tango, and Zulu. After the first issuance each day, scheduled or unscheduled bulletins are numbered sequentially for easier identification. (a) AIRMET Sierra describes IFR conditions and/or extensive mountain obscurations. (b) AIRMET Tango describes moderate turbulence, sustained surface winds of 30 knots or greater, and/or nonconvective low−level wind shear. (c) AIRMET Zulu describes moderate icing and provides freezing level heights. EXAMPLE− Example of AIRMET Sierra issued for the Chicago FA area: CHIS WA 131445 AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 2 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL 132100. AIRMET IFR...KY FROM 20SSW HNN TO HMV TO 50ENE DYR TO20SSW HNN CIG BLW 010/VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR/FG. CONDS ENDG BY 18Z. . AIRMET IFR....MN LS FROM INL TO 70W YQT TO 40ENE DLH TO 30WNW DLH TO 50SE GFK TO 20 ENE GFK TO INL CIG BLW 010/VIS BLW 3SM BR. CONDS ENDG 15− 18Z. . AIRMET IFR....KS FROM 30N SLN TO 60E ICT TO 40S ICT TO 50W LBL TO 30SSW GLD TO 30N SLN CIG BLW 010/VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR/FG. CONDS ENDG 15−18Z. . AIRMET MTN OBSCN...KY TN FROM HNN TO HMV TO GQO TO LOZ TO HNN MTN OBSC BY CLDS/PCPN/BR. CONDS CONTG 7−1−13 AIM BYD 21Z THRU 03Z. ..... EXAMPLE− Example of AIRMET Tango issued for the Salt Lake City FA area: SLCT WA 131445 AIRMET TANGO UPDT 2 FOR TURB VALID UNTIL 132100. AIRMET TURB...MT FROM 40NW HVR TO 50SE BIL TO 60E DLN TO 60SW YQL TO 40NW HVR MOD TURB BLW 150. CONDS DVLPG 18−21Z. CONDS CONTG BYD 21Z THRU 03Z. . AIRMET TURB....ID MT WY NV UT CO FROM 100SE MLS TO 50SSW BFF TO 20SW BTY TO 40SW BAM TO 100SE MLS MOD TURB BTN FL310 AND FL410. CONDS CONTG BYD 21Z ENDG 21−00Z. . AIRMET TURB...NV AZ NM CA AND CSTL WTRS FROM 100WSW ENI TO 40W BTY TO 40S LAS TO 30ESE TBE TO INK TO ELP TO 50S TUS TO BZA TO 20S MZB TO 150SW PYE TO 100WSW ENI MOD TURB BTWN FL210 AND FL380. CONDS CONTG BYD 21Z THRU 03Z. .... EXAMPLE− Example of AIRMET Zulu issued for the San Francisco FA area: SFOZ WA 131445 AIRMET ZULU UPDT 2 FOR ICE AND FRZLVL VALID UNTIL 132100. NO SGFNT ICE EXP OUTSIDE OF CNVTV ACT. . FRZLVL....RANGING FROM SFC−105 ACRS AREA MULT FRZLVL BLW 080 BOUNDED BY 40SE YDC−60NNW GEG−60SW MLP−30WSW BKE− 20SW BAM−70W BAM−40SW YKM−40E HUH− 40SE YDC SFC ALG 20NNW HUH−30SSE HUH−60S SEA 50NW LKV−60WNWOAL−30SW OAL 040 ALG 40W HUH−30W HUH−30NNW SEA−40N PDX−20NNW DSD 080 ALG 160NW FOT−80SW ONP−50SSW EUG 40SSE OED−50SSE CZQ−60E EHF−40WSW LAS .... 3. Graphical AIRMETs (G−AIRMETs), found on the Aviation Weather Center webpage at http://aviationweather.gov, are graphical forecasts of en−route weather hazards valid at discrete times no more than 3 hours apart for a period of up to 12 hours into the future (for example, 00, 03, 06, 09, and 12 hours). Additional forecasts may be inserted during 7−1−14 10/12/17 the first 6 hours (for example, 01, 02, 04, and 05). 00 hour represents the initial conditions, and the subsequent graphics depict the area affected by the particular hazard at that valid time. Forecasts valid at 00 through 06 hours correspond to the text AIRMET bulletin. Forecasts valid at 06 through 12 hours correspond to the text bulletin outlook. G−AIRMET depicts the following en route aviation weather hazards: (a) Instrument flight rule conditions (ceiling < 1000’ and/or surface visibility <3 miles) (b) Mountain obscuration (c) Icing (d) Freezing level (e) Turbulence (f) Low level wind shear (LLWS) (g) Strong surface winds G−AIRMETs are snap shots at discrete time intervals as defined above. The text AIRMET is the result of the production of the G−AIRMET but provided in a time smear for a 6hr valid period. G−AIRMETs provide a higher forecast resolution than text AIRMET products. Since G−AIRMETs and text AIRMETs are created from the same forecast “production” process, there exists perfect consistency between the two. Using the two together will provide clarity of the area impacted by the weather hazard and improve situational awareness and decision making. Interpolation of time periods between G−AIRMET valid times: Users must keep in mind when using the G−AIRMET that if a 00 hour forecast shows no significant weather and a 03 hour forecast shows hazardous weather, they must assume a change is occurring during the period between the two forecasts. It should be taken into consideration that the hazardous weather starts immediately after the 00 hour forecast unless there is a defined initiation or ending time for the hazardous weather. The same would apply after the 03 hour forecast. The user should assume the hazardous weather condition is occurring between the snap shots unless informed otherwise. For example, if a 00 hour forecast shows no hazard, a 03 hour forecast shows the presence of hazardous weather, and a 06 hour forecast shows no hazard, the user should assume the hazard exists from the 0001 hour to the 0559 hour time period. Meteorology 10/12/17 EXAMPLE− See FIG 7−1−6 for an example of the G−AIRMET graphical product. g. Watch Notification Messages The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) in Norman, OK, issues Watch Notification Messages to provide an area threat alert for forecast organized severe thunderstorms that may produce tornadoes, large hail, and/or convective damaging winds within the CONUS. SPC issues three types of watch notification messages: Aviation Watch Notification Messages, Public Severe Thunderstorm Watch Notification Messages, and Public Tornado Watch Notification Messages. It is important to note the difference between a Severe Thunderstorm (or Tornado) Watch and a Severe Thunderstorm (or Tornado) Warning. A watch means severe weather is possible during the next few hours, while a warning means that severe weather has been observed, or is expected within the hour. Only the SPC issues Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Watches, while only NWS Weather Forecasts Offices issue Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Warnings. 1. The Aviation Watch Notification Message. The Aviation Watch Notification Message product is an approximation of the area of the Public Severe Thunderstorm Watch or Public Tornado Watch. The area may be defined as a rectangle or parallelogram using VOR navigational aides as coordinates. The Aviation Watch Notification Message was formerly known as the Alert Severe Weather Watch Bulletin (AWW). The NWS no longer uses that title or acronym for this product. The NWS uses the acronym SAW for the Aviation Watch Notification Message, but retains AWW in the product header for processing by weather data systems. EXAMPLE− Example of an Aviation Watch Notification Message: WWUS30 KWNS 271559 SAW2 SPC AWW 271559 WW 568 TORNADO AR LA MS 271605Z - 280000Z AXIS..65 STATUTE MILES EAST AND WEST OF LINE.. 45ESE HEZ/NATCHEZ MS/ - 50N TUP/TUPELO MS/ ..AVIATION COORDS.. 55NM E/W /18WNW MCB - 60E MEM/ HAIL SURFACE AND ALOFT..3 INCHES. WIND GUSTS..70 KNOTS. MAX TOPS TO 550. MEAN STORM MOTION VECTOR 26030. LAT...LON 31369169 34998991 34998762 31368948 Meteorology AIM THIS IS AN APPROXIMATION TO THE WATCH AREA. FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE WOUS64 KWNS FOR WOU2. 2. Public Severe Thunderstorm Watch Notification Messages describe areas of expected severe thunderstorms. (Severe thunderstorm criteria are 1-inch hail or larger and/or wind gusts of 50 knots [58 mph] or greater). A Public Severe Thunderstorm Watch Notification Message contains the area description and axis, the watch expiration time, a description of hail size and thunderstorm wind gusts expected, the definition of the watch, a call to action statement, a list of other valid watches, a brief discussion of meteorological reasoning and technical information for the aviation community. 3. Public Tornado Watch Notification Messages describe areas where the threat of tornadoes exists. A Public Tornado Watch Notification Message contains the area description and axis, watch expiration time, the term “damaging tornadoes,” a description of the largest hail size and strongest thunderstorm wind gusts expected, the definition of the watch, a call to action statement, a list of other valid watches, a brief discussion of meteorological reasoning and technical information for the aviation community. SPC may enhance a Public Tornado Watch Notification Message by using the words “THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION” when there is a likelihood of multiple strong (damage of EF2 or EF3) or violent (damage of EF4 or EF5) tornadoes. 4. Public severe thunderstorm and tornado watch notification messages were formerly known as the Severe Weather Watch Bulletins (WW). The NWS no longer uses that title or acronym for this product but retains WW in the product header for processing by weather data systems. EXAMPLE− Example of a Public Tornado Watch Notification Message: WWUS20 KWNS 050550 SEL2 SPC WW 051750 URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED TORNADO WATCH NUMBER 243 NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK 1250 AM CDT MON MAY 5 2011 THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A *TORNADO WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF WESTERN AND CENTRAL ARKANSAS 7−1−15 AIM SOUTHERN MISSOURI FAR EASTERN OKLAHOMA *EFFECTIVE THIS MONDAY MORNING FROM 1250 AM UNTIL 600 AM CDT. ...THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION... *PRIMARY THREATS INCLUDE NUMEROUS INTENSE TORNADOES LIKELY NUMEROUS SIGNIFICANT DAMAGING WIND GUSTS TO 80 MPH LIKELY NUMEROUS VERY LARGE HAIL TO 4 INCHES IN DIAMETER LIKELY THE TORNADO WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 100 STATUTE MILES EAST AND WEST OF A LINE FROM 15 MILES WEST NORTHWEST OF FORT LEONARD WOOD MISSOURI TO 45 MILES SOUTHWEST OF HOT SPRINGS ARKANSAS. FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU2). REMEMBER...A TORNADO WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE FOR TORNADOES AND SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...THIS TORNADO WATCH REPLACES TORNADO WATCH NUMBER 237. WATCH NUMBER 237 WILL NOT BE IN EFFECT AFTER 1250 AM CDT. CONTINUE...WW 239...WW 240...WW 241...WW 242... DISCUSSION...SRN MO SQUALL LINE EXPECTED TO CONTINUE EWD...WHERE LONG/HOOKED HODOGRAPHS SUGGEST THREAT FOR EMBEDDED SUPERCELLS/POSSIBLE TORNADOES. FARTHER S...MORE WIDELY SCATTERED SUPERCELLS WITH A THREAT FOR TORNADOES WILL PERSIST IN VERY STRONGLY DEEP SHEARED/ LCL ENVIRONMENT IN AR. AVIATION...TORNADOES AND A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL SURFACE AND ALOFT TO 4 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE WIND GUSTS TO 70 KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO 500. MEAN STORM MOTION VECTOR 26045. 5. Status reports are issued as needed to show progress of storms and to delineate areas no longer under the threat of severe storm activity. Cancellation bulletins are issued when it becomes evident that no severe weather will develop or that storms have subsided and are no longer severe. 7−1−16 10/12/17 h. Center Weather Advisories (CWAs) 1. CWAs are unscheduled inflight, flow control, air traffic, and air crew advisory. By nature of its short lead time, the CWA is not a flight planning product. It is generally a nowcast for conditions beginning within the next two hours. CWAs will be issued: (a) As a supplement to an existing SIGMET, Convective SIGMET or AIRMET. (b) When an Inflight Advisory has not been issued but observed or expected weather conditions meet SIGMET/AIRMET criteria based on current pilot reports and reinforced by other sources of information about existing meteorological conditions. (c) When observed or developing weather conditions do not meet SIGMET, Convective SIGMET, or AIRMET criteria; e.g., in terms of intensity or area coverage, but current pilot reports or other weather information sources indicate that existing or anticipated meteorological phenomena will adversely affect the safe flow of air traffic within the ARTCC area of responsibility. 2. The following example is a CWA issued from the Kansas City, Missouri, ARTCC. The “3” after ZKC in the first line denotes this CWA has been issued for the third weather phenomena to occur for the day. The “301” in the second line denotes the phenomena number again (3) and the issuance number (01) for this phenomena. The CWA was issued at 2140Z and is valid until 2340Z. EXAMPLE− ZKC3 CWA 032140 ZKC CWA 301 VALID UNTIL 032340 ISOLD SVR TSTM over KCOU MOVG SWWD 10 KTS ETC. 7−1−7. Categorical Outlooks a. Categorical outlook terms, describing general ceiling and visibility conditions for advanced planning purposes are used only in area forecasts and are defined as follows: 1. LIFR (Low IFR). Ceiling less than 500 feet and/or visibility less than 1 mile. 2. IFR. Ceiling 500 to less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility 1 to less than 3 miles. 3. MVFR (Marginal VFR). Ceiling 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles inclusive. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM 4. VFR. Ceiling greater than 3,000 feet and visibility greater than 5 miles; includes sky clear. 7−1−9. Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) (Alaska Only) b. The cause of LIFR, IFR, or MVFR is indicated by either ceiling or visibility restrictions or both. The contraction “CIG” and/or weather and obstruction to vision symbols are used. If winds or gusts of 25 knots or greater are forecast for the outlook period, the word “WIND” is also included for all categories including VFR. Equipment is provided in Alaska by which meteorological and aeronautical data are recorded on tapes and broadcast continuously over selected L/MF and VOR facilities. Broadcasts are made from a series of individual tape recordings, and changes, as they occur, are transcribed onto the tapes. The information provided varies depending on the type equipment available. Generally, the broadcast contains a summary of adverse conditions, surface weather observations, pilot weather reports, and a density altitude statement (if applicable). At the discretion of the broadcast facility, recordings may also include a synopsis, winds aloft forecast, en route and terminal forecast data, and radar reports. At selected locations, telephone access to the TWEB has been provided (TEL−TWEB). Telephone numbers for this service are found in the Chart Supplement Alaska. These broadcasts are made available primarily for preflight and inflight planning, and as such, should not be considered as a substitute for specialist−provided preflight briefings. EXAMPLE− 1. LIFR CIG−low IFR due to low ceiling. 2. IFR FG−IFR due to visibility restricted by fog. 3. MVFR CIG HZ FU−marginal VFR due to both ceiling and visibility restricted by haze and smoke. 4. IFR CIG RA WIND−IFR due to both low ceiling and visibility restricted by rain; wind expected to be 25 knots or greater. 7−1−8. Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS) a. TIBS, provided by FSS, is a system of automated telephone recordings of meteorological and aeronautical information available throughout the United States. Based on the specific needs of each area, TIBS provides route and/or area briefings in addition to airspace procedures and special announcements concerning aviation interests that may be available. Depending on user demand, other items may be provided; for example, surface weather observations, terminal forecasts, wind and temperatures aloft forecasts, etc. b. TIBS is not intended to be a substitute for specialist−provided preflight briefings from FSS. TIBS is recommended as a preliminary briefing and often will be valuable in helping you to make a “go” or “no go” decision. c. Pilots are encouraged to utilize TIBS, which can be accessed by dialing the FSS toll−free telephone number, 1−800−WX−BRIEF (992−7433) or specific published TIBS telephone numbers in certain areas. Consult the “FSS Telephone Numbers” section of the Chart Supplement U.S. or the Chart Supplement Alaska or Pacific. NOTE− A touch−tone telephone is necessary to fully utilize TIBS. Meteorology 7−1−10. Inflight Weather Broadcasts a. Weather Advisory Broadcasts. ARTCCs broadcast a Severe Weather Forecast Alert (AWW), Convective SIGMET, SIGMET, or CWA alert once on all frequencies, except emergency, when any part of the area described is within 150 miles of the airspace under their jurisdiction. These broadcasts contain SIGMET or CWA (identification) and a brief description of the weather activity and general area affected. EXAMPLE− 1. Attention all aircraft, SIGMET Delta Three, from Myton to Tuba City to Milford, severe turbulence and severe clear icing below one zero thousand feet. Expected to continue beyond zero three zero zero zulu. 2. Attention all aircraft, convective SIGMET Two Seven Eastern. From the vicinity of Elmira to Phillipsburg. Scattered embedded thunderstorms moving east at one zero knots. A few intense level five cells, maximum tops four five zero. 3. Attention all aircraft, Kansas City Center weather advisory one zero three. Numerous reports of moderate to severe icing from eight to niner thousand feet in a three zero mile radius of St. Louis. Light or negative icing reported from four thousand to one two thousand feet remainder of Kansas City Center area. 7−1−17 AIM NOTE− 1. Terminal control facilities have the option to limit the AWW, convective SIGMET, SIGMET, or CWA broadcast as follows: local control and approach control positions may opt to broadcast SIGMET or CWA alerts only when any part of the area described is within 50 miles of the airspace under their jurisdiction. 2. In areas where HIWAS is available, ARTCC, Terminal ATC, and FSS facilities no longer broadcast Inflight Weather Advisories as described above in paragraph a. See paragraphs b1 and b2 below. b. Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS). HIWAS is an automated, continuous broadcast of inflight weather advisories, provided by FSS over select VOR outlets, which include the following weather products: AWW, SIGMET, Convective SIGMET, CWA, AIRMET (text [WA] or graphical [G−AIRMET] products), and urgent PIREP. HIWAS is available throughout the conterminous United States as an additional source of hazardous weather information. HIWAS does not replace preflight or inflight weather briefings from FSS. Pilots should call FSS if there are any questions about weather that is different than forecasted or if the HIWAS broadcast appears to be in error. 1. Where HIWAS is available, ARTCC and terminal ATC facilities will broadcast, upon receipt, 7−1−18 10/12/17 a HIWAS alert once on all frequencies, except emergency frequencies. Included in the broadcast will be an alert announcement, frequency instruction, number, and type of advisory updated; for example, AWW, SIGMET, Convective SIGMET, or CWA. EXAMPLE− Attention all aircraft. Hazardous weather information (SIGMET, Convective SIGMET, AIRMET (text [WA] or graphical [G−AIRMET] product) , Urgent Pilot Weather Report [UUA], or Center Weather Advisory [CWA], Number or Numbers) for (geographical area) available on HIWAS or Flight Service frequencies. 2. Upon notification of an update to HIWAS, FSS will broadcast a HIWAS update announcement once on all frequencies except emergency frequencies. Included in the broadcast will be the type of advisory updated; for example, AWW, SIGMET, Convective SIGMET, CWA, etc. EXAMPLE− Attention all aircraft. Hazardous weather information for (geographical area) available from Flight Service. 3. HIWAS availability is notated with VOR listings in the Chart Supplement U.S., and is shown by symbols on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts and VFR Sectional Charts. The symbol depiction is identified in the chart legend. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−6 G−AIRMET Graphical Product Meteorology 7−1−19 AIM 7−1−11. Flight Information Services (FIS) a. FIS. FIS is a method of disseminating meteorological (MET) and aeronautical information (AI) to displays in the cockpit in order to enhance pilot situational awareness, provide decision support tools, and improve safety. FIS augments traditional pilot voice communication with Flight Service Stations (FSSs), ATC facilities, or Airline Operations Control Centers (AOCCs). FIS is not intended to replace traditional pilot and controller/flight service specialist/aircraft dispatcher preflight briefings or inflight voice communications. FIS, however, can provide textual and graphical information that can help abbreviate and improve the usefulness of such communications. FIS enhances pilot situational awareness and improves safety. 1. Data link Service Providers (DLSP) - DLSP deploy and maintain airborne, ground-based, and, in some cases, space-based infrastructure that supports the transmission of AI/MET information over one or more physical links. DLSP may provide a free of charge or for-fee service that permits end users to uplink and downlink AI/MET and other information. The following are examples of DLSP: (a) FAA FIS-B. A ground-based broadcast service provided through the ADS-B Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) network. The service provides users with a 978 MHz data link capability when operating within range and line-of-sight of a transmitting ground station. FIS-B enables users of properly equipped aircraft to receive and display a suite of broadcast weather and aeronautical information products. (b) Non-FAA FIS Systems. Several commercial vendors provide customers with FIS data over both the aeronautical spectrum and on other frequencies using a variety of data link protocols. Services available from these providers vary greatly and may include tier based subscriptions. Advancements in bandwidth technology permits preflight as well as inflight access to the same MET and AI information available on the ground. Pilots and operators using non-FAA FIS for MET and AI information should be knowledgeable regarding the weather services being provided as some commercial vendors may be repackaging NWS sourced weather, while other commercial vendors may alter the weather information to produce vendor−tailored or vendor−specific weather reports and forecasts. 7−1−20 10/12/17 2. Three Data Link Modes. There are three data link modes that may be used for transmitting AI and MET information to aircraft. The intended use of the AI and/or MET information will determine the most appropriate data link service. (a) Broadcast Mode: A one-way interaction in which AI and/or MET updates or changes applicable to a designated geographic area are continuously transmitted (or transmitted at repeated periodic intervals) to all aircraft capable of receiving the broadcast within the service volume defined by the system network architecture. (b) Contract/Demand Mode: A two-way interaction in which AI and/or MET information is transmitted to an aircraft in response to a specific request. (c) Contract/Update Mode: A two-way interaction that is an extension of the Demand Mode. Initial AI and/or MET report(s) are sent to an aircraft and subsequent updates or changes to the AI and/or MET information that meet the contract criteria are automatically or manually sent to an aircraft. 3. To ensure airman compliance with Federal Aviation Regulations, manufacturer’s operating manuals should remind airmen to contact ATC controllers, FSS specialists, operator dispatchers, or airline operations control centers for general and mission critical aviation weather information and/or NAS status conditions (such as NOTAMs, Special Use Airspace status, and other government flight information). If FIS products are systemically modified (for example, are displayed as abbreviated plain text and/or graphical depictions), the modification process and limitations of the resultant product should be clearly described in the vendor’s user guidance. 4. Operational Use of FIS. Regardless of the type of FIS system being used, several factors must be considered when using FIS: (a) Before using FIS for inflight operations, pilots and other flight crewmembers should become familiar with the operation of the FIS system to be used, the airborne equipment to be used, including its system architecture, airborne system components, coverage service volume and other limitations of the particular system, modes of operation and indications of various system failures. Users should also be familiar with the specific content and format of the services available from the FIS provider(s). Sources Meteorology 10/12/17 of information that may provide this specific guidance include manufacturer’s manuals, training programs, and reference guides. (b) FIS should not serve as the sole source of aviation weather and other operational information. ATC, FSSs, and, if applicable, AOCC VHF/HF voice remain as a redundant method of communicating aviation weather, NOTAMs, and other operational information to aircraft in flight. FIS augments these traditional ATC/FSS/AOCC services and, for some products, offers the advantage of being displayed as graphical information. By using FIS for orientation, the usefulness of information received from conventional means may be enhanced. For example, FIS may alert the pilot to specific areas of concern that will more accurately focus requests made to FSS or AOCC for inflight updates or similar queries made to ATC. (c) The airspace and aeronautical environment is constantly changing. These changes occur quickly and without warning. Critical operational decisions should be based on use of the most current and appropriate data available. When differences exist between FIS and information obtained by voice communication with ATC, FSS, and/or AOCC (if applicable), pilots are cautioned to use the most recent data from the most authoritative source. (d) FIS aviation weather products (for example, graphical ground−based radar precipitation depictions) are not appropriate for tactical (typical timeframe of less than 3 minutes) avoidance of severe weather such as negotiating a path through a weather hazard area. FIS supports strategic (typical timeframe of 20 minutes or more) weather decisionmaking such as route selection to avoid a weather hazard area in its entirety. The misuse of information beyond its applicability may place the pilot and aircraft in jeopardy. In addition, FIS should never be used in lieu of an individual preflight weather and flight planning briefing. (e) DLSP offer numerous MET and AI products with information that can be layered on top of each other. Pilots need to be aware that too much information can have a negative effect on their cognitive work load. Pilots need to manage the amount of information to a level that offers the most pertinent information to that specific flight without creating a cockpit distraction. Pilots may need to Meteorology AIM adjust the amount of information based on numerous factors including, but not limited to, the phase of flight, single pilot operation, autopilot availability, class of airspace, and the weather conditions encountered. (f) FIS NOTAM products, including Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information, are advisory−use information and are intended for situational awareness purposes only. Cockpit displays of this information are not appropriate for tactical navigation − pilots should stay clear of any geographic area displayed as a TFR NOTAM. Pilots should contact FSSs and/or ATC while en route to obtain updated information and to verify the cockpit display of NOTAM information. (g) FIS supports better pilot decisionmaking by increasing situational awareness. Better decision− making is based on using information from a variety of sources. In addition to FIS, pilots should take advantage of other weather/NAS status sources, including, briefings from Flight Service Stations, data from other air traffic control facilities, airline operation control centers, pilot reports, as well as their own observations. (h) FAA’s Flight Information Service−Broadcast (FIS−B). (1) FIS−B is a ground−based broadcast service provided through the FAA’s Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast (ADS−B) Services Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) network. The service provides users with a 978 MHz data link capability when operating within range and line−of− sight of a transmitting ground station. FIS−B enables users of properly−equipped aircraft to receive and display a suite of broadcast weather and aeronautical information products. (2) The following list represents the initial suite of text and graphical products available through FIS−B and provided free−of−charge. Detailed information concerning FIS−B meteorological products can be found in Advisory Circular 00−45, Aviation Weather Services, and AC 00-63, Use of Cockpit Displays of Digital Weather and Aeronautical Information. Information on Special Use Airspace (SUA), Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR), and Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) products can be found in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of this manual. 7−1−21 AIM 10/12/17 [a] Text: Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) and Special Aviation Report (SPECI); [b] Text: Pilot Weather Report (PIREP); [c] Text: Winds and Temperatures Aloft; [d] Text: Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and amendments; [e] Text: Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Distant and Flight Data Center; [f] Text/Graphic: Airmen’s Meteorological Conditions (AIRMET); [g] Text/Graphic: Significant Meteorological Conditions (SIGMET); MET; (SUA); [h] Text/Graphic: Convective SIG[i] Text/Graphic: Special Use Airspace [j] Text/Graphic: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) NOTAM; and [k] Graphic: NEXRAD Composite Reflectivity Products (Regional and National). (3) Users of FIS−B should familiarize themselves with the operational characteristics and limitations of the system, including: system architecture; service environment; product lifecycles; modes of operation; and indications of system failure. (4) FIS−B products are updated and transmitted at specific intervals based primarily on product issuance criteria. Update intervals are defined as the rate at which the product data is available from the source for transmission. Transmission intervals are defined as the amount of time within which a new or updated product transmission must be completed and/or the rate or repetition interval at which the product is rebroadcast. Update and transmission intervals for each product are provided in TBL 7−1−1. (5) Where applicable, FIS−B products include a look−ahead range expressed in nautical miles (NM) for three service domains: Airport Surface; Terminal Airspace; and Enroute/Gulf−of− Mexico (GOMEX). TBL 7−1−2 provides service domain availability and look−ahead ranging for each FIS−B product. 7−1−22 (6) Prior to using this capability, users should familiarize themselves with the operation of FIS−B avionics by referencing the applicable User’s Guides. Guidance concerning the interpretation of information displayed should be obtained from the appropriate avionics manufacturer. (7) FIS−B malfunctions not attributed to aircraft system failures or covered by active NOTAM should be reported by radio or telephone to the nearest FSS facility. b. Non−FAA FIS Systems. Several commercial vendors also provide customers with FIS data over both the aeronautical spectrum and on other frequencies using a variety of data link protocols. In some cases, the vendors provide only the communications system that carries customer messages, such as the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) used by many air carrier and other operators. 1. Operators using non−FAA FIS data for inflight weather and other operational information should ensure that the products used conform to FAA/NWS standards. Specifically, aviation weather and NAS status information should meet the following criteria: (a) The products should be either FAA/NWS “accepted” aviation weather reports or products, or based on FAA/NWS accepted aviation weather reports or products. If products are used which do not meet this criteria, they should be so identified. The operator must determine the applicability of such products to their particular flight operations. (b) In the case of a weather product which is the result of the application of a process which alters the form, function or content of the base FAA/NWS accepted weather product(s), that process, and any limitations to the application of the resultant product, should be described in the vendor’s user guidance material. 2. An example would be a NEXRAD radar composite/mosaic map, which has been modified by changing the scaling resolution. The methodology of assigning reflectivity values to the resultant image components should be described in the vendor’s guidance material to ensure that the user can accurately interpret the displayed data. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM TBL 7−1−1 FIS−B Over UAT Product Update and Transmission Intervals AIRMET Convective SIGMET METARs/SPECIs NEXRAD Composite Reflectivity (CONUS) As Available As Available 1 minute/As Available 15 minutes FIS-B Service Transmission Intervals2 5 minutes 5 minutes 5 minutes 15 minutes NEXRAD Composite Reflectivity (Regional) 5 minutes 2.5 minutes As Available As Available As Available As Available 8 Hours/As Available 12 Hours 12 Hours 10 minutes 10 minutes 5 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes Product NOTAMs-D/FDC/TFR PIREP SIGMET SUA Status TAF/AMEND Temperatures Aloft Winds Aloft 1 The FIS-B Over UAT Service Update Intervals1 Update Interval is the rate at which the product data is available from the source. 2 The Transmission Interval is the amount of time within which a new or updated product transmission must be completed and the rate or repetition interval at which the product is rebroadcast. Meteorology 7−1−23 AIM 10/12/17 TBL 7−1−2 Product Parameters for Low/Medium/High Altitude Tier Radios Product Surface Radios Low Altitude Tier Medium Altitude Tier High Altitude Tier CONUS NEXRAD N/A CONUS NEXRAD not provided CONUS NEXRAD imagery CONUS NEXRAD imagery Winds & Temps Aloft 500 NM look−ahead range 500 NM look−ahead range 750 NM look−ahead range 1,000 NM look− ahead range METAR 100 NM look−ahead range 250 NM look−ahead range 375 NM look−ahead range CONUS: CONUS Class B & C airport METARs and 500 NM look−ahead range Outside of CONUS: 500 NM look-ahead range TAF 100 NM look−ahead range 250 NM look−ahead range 375 NM look−ahead range CONUS: CONUS Class B & C airport TAFs and 500 NM look−ahead range Outside of CONUS: 500 NM look-ahead range AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, and SUA/ SAA 100 NM look−ahead range. PIREP/SUA/ SAA is N/A. 250 NM look−ahead range 375 NM look−ahead range 500 NM look−ahead range Regional NEXRAD 150 NM look−ahead range 150 NM look−ahead range 200 NM look−ahead range 250 NM look−ahead range NOTAMs D, FDC, and TFR 100 NM look−ahead range 100 NM look−ahead range 100 NM look−ahead range 100 NM look−ahead range 7−1−12. Weather Observing Programs a. Manual Observations. With only a few exceptions, these reports are from airport locations staffed by FAA personnel who manually observe, perform calculations, and enter these observations into the (WMSCR) communication system. The format and coding of these observations are contained in Paragraph 7−1−30 , Key to Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) and Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF). b. Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS). 1. Automated weather reporting systems are increasingly being installed at airports. These systems consist of various sensors, a processor, a computer-generated voice subsystem, and a transmit- 7−1−24 ter to broadcast local, minute-by-minute weather data directly to the pilot. NOTE− When the barometric pressure exceeds 31.00 inches Hg., see Paragraph 7−2−2 , Procedures, for the altimeter setting procedures. 2. The AWOS observations will include the prefix “AUTO” to indicate that the data are derived from an automated system. Some AWOS locations will be augmented by certified observers who will provide weather and obstruction to vision information in the remarks of the report when the reported visibility is less than 7 miles. These sites, along with the hours of augmentation, are to be published in the Chart Supplement U.S. Augmentation is identified in the observation as “OBSERVER WEATHER.” The AWOS wind speed, direction and gusts, temperature, Meteorology 10/12/17 dew point, and altimeter setting are exactly the same as for manual observations. The AWOS will also report density altitude when it exceeds the field elevation by more than 1,000 feet. The reported visibility is derived from a sensor near the touchdown of the primary instrument runway. The visibility sensor output is converted to a visibility value using a 10−minute harmonic average. The reported sky condition/ceiling is derived from the ceilometer located next to the visibility sensor. The AWOS algorithm integrates the last 30 minutes of ceilometer data to derive cloud layers and heights. This output may also differ from the observer sky condition in that the AWOS is totally dependent upon the cloud advection over the sensor site. 3. These real-time systems are operationally classified into nine basic levels: (a) AWOS−A only reports altimeter setting; NOTE− Any other information is advisory only. ty; (b) AWOS−AV reports altimeter and visibili- NOTE− Any other information is advisory only. (c) AWOS−l usually reports altimeter setting, wind data, temperature, dew point, and density altitude; (d) AWOS−2 provides the information provided by AWOS−l plus visibility; and (e) AWOS−3 provides the information provided by AWOS−2 plus cloud/ceiling data. (f) AWOS− 3P provides reports the same as the AWOS 3 system, plus a precipitation identification sensor. (g) AWOS− 3PT reports the same as the AWOS 3P System, plus thunderstorm/lightning reporting capability. (h) AWOS− 3T reports the same as AWOS 3 system and includes a thunderstorm/lightning reporting capability. (i) AWOS− 4 reports the same as the AWOS 3 system, plus precipitation occurrence, type and accumulation, freezing rain, thunderstorm, and runway surface sensors. 4. The information is transmitted over a discrete VHF radio frequency or the voice portion of a local Meteorology AIM NAVAID. AWOS transmissions on a discrete VHF radio frequency are engineered to be receivable to a maximum of 25 NM from the AWOS site and a maximum altitude of 10,000 feet AGL. At many locations, AWOS signals may be received on the surface of the airport, but local conditions may limit the maximum AWOS reception distance and/or altitude. The system transmits a 20 to 30 second weather message updated each minute. Pilots should monitor the designated frequency for the automated weather broadcast. A description of the broadcast is contained in subparagraph c. There is no two-way communication capability. Most AWOS sites also have a dial-up capability so that the minute-byminute weather messages can be accessed via telephone. 5. AWOS information (system level, frequency, phone number, etc.) concerning specific locations is published, as the systems become operational, in the Chart Supplement U.S., and where applicable, on published Instrument Approach Procedures. Selected individual systems may be incorporated into nationwide data collection and dissemination networks in the future. c. AWOS Broadcasts. Computer-generated voice is used in AWOS to automate the broadcast of the minute-by-minute weather observations. In addition, some systems are configured to permit the addition of an operator-generated voice message; e.g., weather remarks following the automated parameters. The phraseology used generally follows that used for other weather broadcasts. Following are explanations and examples of the exceptions. 1. Location and Time. The location/name and the phrase “AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVATION,” followed by the time are announced. (a) If the airport’s specific location is included in the airport’s name, the airport’s name is announced. EXAMPLE− “Bremerton National Airport automated weather observation, one four five six zulu;” “Ravenswood Jackson County Airport automated weather observation, one four five six zulu.” (b) If the airport’s specific location is not included in the airport’s name, the location is announced followed by the airport’s name. 7−1−25 AIM 10/12/17 EXAMPLE− “Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County International Airport automated weather observation;” “Sandusky, Cowley Field automated weather observation.” (c) The word “TEST” is added following “OBSERVATION” when the system is not in commissioned status. No clouds detected is announced as “NO CLOUDS BELOW XXX” or, in newer systems as “CLEAR BELOW XXX” (where XXX is the range limit of the sensor). EXAMPLE− “No clouds below one two thousand.” “Clear below one two thousand.” (d) The phrase “TEMPORARILY INOPERATIVE” is added when the system is inoperative. (c) A sensor for determining ceiling and sky cover is not included in some AWOS. In these systems, ceiling and sky cover are not announced. “SKY CONDITION MISSING” is announced only if the system is configured with a ceilometer and the ceiling and sky cover information is not available. EXAMPLE− “Bremerton National Airport automated weather observing system temporarily inoperative.” 5. Remarks. If remarks are included in the observation, the word “REMARKS” is announced following the altimeter setting. EXAMPLE− “Bremerton National Airport automated weather observation test, one four five six zulu.” 2. Visibility. (a) The lowest reportable visibility value in AWOS is “less than 1 / 4 .” It is announced as “VISIBILITY LESS THAN ONE QUARTER.” (b) A sensor for determining visibility is not included in some AWOS. In these systems, visibility is not announced. “VISIBILITY MISSING” is announced only if the system is configured with a visibility sensor and visibility information is not available. 3. Weather. In the future, some AWOSs are to be configured to determine the occurrence of precipitation. However, the type and intensity may not always be determined. In these systems, the word “PRECIPITATION” will be announced if precipitation is occurring, but the type and intensity are not determined. 4. Ceiling and Sky Cover. (a) Ceiling is announced as either “CEILING” or “INDEFINITE CEILING.” With the exception of indefinite ceilings, all automated ceiling heights are measured. (a) Automated “Remarks.” (1) Density Altitude. (2) Variable Visibility. (3) Variable Wind Direction. (b) Manual Input Remarks. Manual input remarks are prefaced with the phrase “OBSERVER WEATHER.” As a general rule the manual remarks are limited to: (1) Type and intensity of precipitation. (2) Thunderstorms and direction; and (3) Obstructions to vision when the visibility is 3 miles or less. EXAMPLE− “Remarks ... density altitude, two thousand five hundred ... visibility variable between one and two ... wind direction variable between two four zero and three one zero ...observed weather ... thunderstorm moderate rain showers and fog ... thunderstorm overhead.” EXAMPLE− “Bremerton National Airport automated weather observation, one four five six zulu. Ceiling two thousand overcast;” (c) If an automated parameter is “missing” and no manual input for that parameter is available, the parameter is announced as “MISSING.” For example, a report with the dew point “missing” and no manual input available, would be announced as follows: “Bremerton National Airport automated weather observation, one four five six zulu. Indefinite ceiling two hundred, sky obscured.” EXAMPLE− “Ceiling one thousand overcast ... visibility three ... precipitation ... temperature three zero, dew point missing ... wind calm ... altimeter three zero zero one.” (b) The word “Clear” is not used in AWOS due to limitations in the height ranges of the sensors. (d) “REMARKS” are announced in the following order of priority: 7−1−26 Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM (1) Automated “REMARKS.” [a] Density Altitude. [b] Variable Visibility. [c] Variable Wind Direction. (2) Manual Input “REMARKS.” [a] Sky Condition. [b] Visibility. [c] Weather and Obstructions to Vision. [d] Temperature. [e] Dew Point. [f] Wind; and [g] Altimeter Setting. EXAMPLE− “Remarks ... density altitude, two thousand five hundred ... visibility variable between one and two ... wind direction variable between two four zero and three one zero ... observer ceiling estimated two thousand broken ... observer temperature two, dew point minus five.” d. Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Sensor System (AWSS). The ASOS/AWSS is the primary surface weather observing system of the U.S. (See Key to Decode an ASOS/AWSS (METAR) Observation, FIG 7−1−7 and FIG 7−1−8.) The program to install and operate these systems throughout the U.S. is a joint effort of the NWS, the FAA and the Department of Defense. AWSS is a follow−on program that provides identical data as ASOS. ASOS/AWSS is designed to support aviation operations and weather forecast activities. The ASOS/AWSS will provide continuous minute-by-minute observations and perform the basic observing functions necessary to generate an aviation routine weather report (METAR) and other aviation weather information. The information may be transmitted over a discrete VHF radio frequency or the voice portion of a local NAVAID. ASOS/AWSS transmissions on a discrete VHF radio frequency are engineered to be receivable to a maximum of 25 NM from the ASOS/AWSS site and a maximum altitude of 10,000 feet AGL. At many locations, ASOS/AWSS signals may be received on the surface of the airport, but local conditions may limit the maximum reception distance and/or altitude. While the automated system and the human may differ in their methods of data collection and Meteorology interpretation, both produce an observation quite similar in form and content. For the “objective” elements such as pressure, ambient temperature, dew point temperature, wind, and precipitation accumulation, both the automated system and the observer use a fixed location and time-averaging technique. The quantitative differences between the observer and the automated observation of these elements are negligible. For the “subjective” elements, however, observers use a fixed time, spatial averaging technique to describe the visual elements (sky condition, visibility and present weather), while the automated systems use a fixed location, time averaging technique. Although this is a fundamental change, the manual and automated techniques yield remarkably similar results within the limits of their respective capabilities. 1. System Description. (a) The ASOS/AWSS at each airport location consists of four main components: (1) Individual weather sensors. (2) Data collection and processing units. (3) Peripherals and displays. (b) The ASOS/AWSS sensors perform the basic function of data acquisition. They continuously sample and measure the ambient environment, derive raw sensor data and make them available to the collection and processing units. 2. Every ASOS/AWSS will contain the following basic set of sensors: three). (a) Cloud height indicator (one or possibly (b) Visibility sensor (one or possibly three). (c) Precipitation identification sensor. (d) Freezing rain sensor (at select sites). (e) Pressure sensors (two sensors at small airports; three sensors at large airports). (f) Ambient temperature/Dew point temperature sensor. (g) Anemometer (wind direction and speed sensor). (h) Rainfall accumulation sensor. (i) Automated Lightning Detection and Reporting System (ALDARS) (excluding Alaska and Pacific Island sites). 7−1−27 AIM 10/12/17 3. The ASOS/AWSS data outlets include: (a) Those necessary for on-site airport users. (b) National communications networks. (c) Computer-generated voice (available through FAA radio broadcast to pilots, and dial-in telephone line). NOTE− Wind direction broadcast over FAA radios is in reference to magnetic north. 4. An ASOS/AWOS/AWSS report without human intervention will contain only that weather data capable of being reported automatically. The modifier for this METAR report is “AUTO.” When 7−1−28 an observer augments or backs−up an ASOS/AWOS/ AWSS site, the “AUTO” modifier disappears. 5. There are two types of automated stations, AO1 for automated weather reporting stations without a precipitation discriminator, and AO2 for automated stations with a precipitation discriminator. As appropriate, “AO1” and “AO2” must appear in remarks. (A precipitation discriminator can determine the difference between liquid and frozen/freezing precipitation). NOTE− To decode an ASOS/AWSS report, refer to FIG 7−1−7 and FIG 7−1−8. REFERENCE− A complete explanation of METAR terminology is located in AIM, Paragraph 7−1−30 , Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR). Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−7 Key to Decode an ASOS/AWSS (METAR) Observation (Front) Meteorology 7−1−29 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−8 Key to Decode an ASOS/AWSS (METAR) Observation (Back) 7−1−30 Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM e. TBL 7−1−3 contains a comparison of weather observing programs and the elements reported. inserts the correct or missing value for the automated ASOS/AWSS elements. This service is provided by air traffic controllers under the Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Station (LAWRS) process, FSS and NWS observers, and, at selected sites, Non−Federal Observation Program observers. f. Service Standards. During 1995, a government/industry team worked to comprehensively reassess the requirements for surface observations at the nation’s airports. That work resulted in agreement on a set of service standards, and the FAA and NWS ASOS sites to which the standards would apply. The term “Service Standards” refers to the level of detail in weather observation. The service standards consist of four different levels of service (A, B, C, and D) as described below. Specific observational elements included in each service level are listed in TBL 7−1−4. Two categories of airports require detail beyond Service Level C in order to enhance air traffic control efficiency and increase system capacity. Services at these airports are typically provided by contract weather observers, NWS observers, and, at some locations, FSS observers. 3. Service Level B is a service in which weather observations consist of all elements provided under Service Level C, plus augmentation of additional data beyond the capability of the ASOS/AWSS. This category of airports includes smaller hubs or special airports in other ways that have worse than average bad weather operations for thunderstorms and/or freezing/frozen precipitation, and/or that are remote airports. 1. Service Level D defines the minimum acceptable level of service. It is a completely automated service in which the ASOS/AWSS observation will constitute the entire observation, i.e., no additional weather information is added by a human observer. This service is referred to as a stand alone D site. 4. Service Level A, the highest and most demanding category, includes all the data reported in Service Standard B, plus additional requirements as specified. Service Level A covers major aviation hubs and/or high volume traffic airports with average or worse weather. 2. Service Level C is a service in which the human observer, usually an air traffic controller, augments or adds information to the automated observation. Service Level C also includes backup of ASOS/AWSS elements in the event of an ASOS/ AWSS malfunction or an unrepresentative ASOS/AWSS report. In backup, the human observer TBL 7−1−3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Remarks Precipitation Identification X X Occurrence Cloud/Ceiling Freezing Rain Density Altimeter Runway Surface Condition Altimeter Rainfall Accumulation Temperature Dew Point X ASOS Precipitation Occurrence Visibility AWSS Element Reported Wind Thunderstorm/ Lightning Weather Observing Programs Type AWOS−A X AWOS−A/V X AWOS−1 X AWOS−2 X X X X X X X X X AWOS−3 X X X X X X AWOS−3P X X X X X X AWOS−3T X X X X X X AWOS−3P/T X X X X X X X X AWOS−4 X X X X X X X X Manual X X X X X X X X X X X X X REFERENCE− FAA Order JO 7900.5B, Surface Weather Observing, for element reporting. Meteorology 7−1−31 AIM 10/12/17 TBL 7−1−4 SERVICE LEVEL A Service Level A consists of all the elements of Service Levels B, C and D plus the elements listed to the right, if observed. SERVICE LEVEL B Service Level B consists of all the elements of Service Levels C and D plus the elements listed to the right, if observed. SERVICE LEVEL C Service Level C consists of all the elements of Service Level D plus augmentation and backup by a human observer or an air traffic control specialist on location nearby. Backup consists of inserting the correct value if the system malfunctions or is unrepresentative. Augmentation consists of adding the elements listed to the right, if observed. During hours that the observing facility is closed, the site reverts to Service Level D. SERVICE LEVEL D This level of service consists of an ASOS or AWSS continually measuring the atmosphere at a point near the runway. The ASOS or AWSS senses and measures the weather parameters listed to the right. 7−1−13. Weather Radar Services a. The National Weather Service operates a network of radar sites for detecting coverage, intensity, and movement of precipitation. The network is supplemented by FAA and DOD radar sites in the western sections of the country. Local warning radar sites augment the network by operating on an as needed basis to support warning and forecast programs. b. Scheduled radar observations are taken hourly and transmitted in alpha-numeric format on weather telecommunications circuits for flight planning purposes. Under certain conditions, special radar reports are issued in addition to the hourly 7−1−32 10 minute longline RVR at precedented sites or additional visibility increments of 1/8, 1/16 and 0 Sector visibility Variable sky condition Cloud layers above 12,000 feet and cloud types Widespread dust, sand and other obscurations Volcanic eruptions Longline RVR at precedented sites (may be instantaneous readout) Freezing drizzle versus freezing rain Ice pellets Snow depth & snow increasing rapidly remarks Thunderstorm and lightning location remarks Observed significant weather not at the station remarks Thunderstorms Tornadoes Hail Virga Volcanic ash Tower visibility Operationally significant remarks as deemed appropriate by the observer Wind Visibility Precipitation/Obstruction to vision Cloud height Sky cover Temperature Dew point Altimeter transmittals. Data contained in the reports are also collected by the National Center for Environmental Prediction and used to prepare national radar summary charts for dissemination on facsimile circuits. c. A clear radar display (no echoes) does not mean that there is no significant weather within the coverage of the radar site. Clouds and fog are not detected by the radar. However, when echoes are present, turbulence can be implied by the intensity of the precipitation, and icing is implied by the presence of the precipitation at temperatures at or below zero degrees Celsius. Used in conjunction with other weather products, radar provides invaluable information for weather avoidance and flight planning. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−9 NEXRAD Coverage Meteorology 7−1−33 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−10 NEXRAD Coverage 7−1−34 Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−11 NEXRAD Coverage Meteorology 7−1−35 7110.65R CHG 2 AIM AIM d. All En Route Flight Advisory Service facilities and FSSs have equipment to directly access the radar displays from the individual weather radar sites. Specialists at these locations are trained to interpret the display for pilot briefing and inflight advisory services. The Center Weather Service Units located in ARTCCs also have access to weather radar displays and provide support to all air traffic facilities within their center’s area. e. Additional information on weather radar products and services can be found in AC 00−45, Aviation Weather Services. REFERENCE− Pilot/Controller Glossary Term− Precipitation Radar Weather Descriptions. AIM, Paragraph 7−1−28 , Thunderstorms Chart Supplement U.S., Charts, NWS Upper Air Observing Stations and Weather Network for the location of specific radar sites. 7−1−14. ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance Assistance a. ATC Radar Weather Display. 1. ATC radars are able to display areas of precipitation by sending out a beam of radio energy that is reflected back to the radar antenna when it strikes an object or moisture which may be in the form of rain drops, hail, or snow. The larger the object is, or the more dense its reflective surface, the stronger the return will be presented. Radar weather processors indicate the intensity of reflective returns in terms of decibels (dBZ). ATC systems cannot detect the presence or absence of clouds. The ATC systems can often determine the intensity of a precipitation area, but the specific character of that area (snow, rain, hail, VIRGA, etc.) cannot be determined. For this reason, ATC refers to all weather areas displayed on ATC radar scopes as “precipitation.” 2. All ATC facilities using radar weather processors with the ability to determine precipitation intensity, will describe the intensity to pilots as: (a) “LIGHT” (< 26 dBZ) (b) “MODERATE” (26 to 40 dBZ) (c) “HEAVY” (> 40 to 50 dBZ) (d) “EXTREME” (> 50 dBZ) NOTE− En route ATC radar’s Weather and Radar Processor (WARP) does not display light precipitation intensity. 7−1−36 3/15/07 3/29/18 10/12/17 3. ATC facilities that, due to equipment limitations, cannot display the intensity levels of precipitation, will describe the location of the precipitation area by geographic position, or position relative to the aircraft. Since the intensity level is not available, the controller will state “INTENSITY UNKNOWN.” 4. ARTCC facilities normally use a Weather and Radar Processor (WARP) to display a mosaic of data obtained from multiple NEXRAD sites. There is a time delay between actual conditions and those displayed to the controller. For example, the precipitation data on the ARTCC controller’s display could be up to 6 minutes old. When the WARP is not available, a second system, the narrowband Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) can display two distinct levels of precipitation intensity that will be described to pilots as “MODERATE” (30 to 40 dBZ) and “HEAVY TO EXTREME” ( > 40 dBZ ). The WARP processor is only used in ARTCC facilities. 5. ATC radar is not able to detect turbulence. Generally, turbulence can be expected to occur as the rate of rainfall or intensity of precipitation increases. Turbulence associated with greater rates of rainfall/ precipitation will normally be more severe than any associated with lesser rates of rainfall/precipitation. Turbulence should be expected to occur near convective activity, even in clear air. Thunderstorms are a form of convective activity that imply severe or greater turbulence. Operation within 20 miles of thunderstorms should be approached with great caution, as the severity of turbulence can be markedly greater than the precipitation intensity might indicate. b. Weather Avoidance Assistance. 1. To the extent possible, controllers will issue pertinent information on weather or chaff areas and assist pilots in avoiding such areas when requested. Pilots should respond to a weather advisory by either acknowledging the advisory or by acknowledging the advisory and requesting an alternative course of action as follows: (a) Request to deviate off course by stating a heading or degrees, direction of deviation, and approximate number of miles. In this case, when the requested deviation is approved, navigation is at the pilot’s prerogative, but must maintain the altitude assigned, and remain within the lateral restrictions issued by ATC. Meteorology 10/12/17 (b) An approval for lateral deviation authorizes the pilot to maneuver left or right within the limits specified in the clearance. NOTE− 1. It is often necessary for ATC to restrict the amount of lateral deviation (“twenty degrees right,” “up to fifteen degrees left,” “up to ten degrees left or right of course”). 2. The term “when able, proceed direct,” in an ATC weather deviation clearance, refers to the pilot’s ability to remain clear of the weather when returning to course/route. area. areas. AIM be furnished to ATC when requesting clearance to detour around weather activity: (a) Proposed point where detour will commence. (b) Proposed route and extent of detour (direction and distance). (c) Point where original route will be resumed. (d) Flight conditions (IFR or VFR). (c) Request a new route to avoid the affected (e) Any further deviation that may become necessary as the flight progresses. (d) Request a change of altitude. (f) Advise if the aircraft is equipped with functioning airborne radar. (e) Request radar vectors around the affected 2. For obvious reasons of safety, an IFR pilot must not deviate from the course or altitude or flight level without a proper ATC clearance. When weather conditions encountered are so severe that an immediate deviation is determined to be necessary and time will not permit approval by ATC, the pilot’s emergency authority may be exercised. 3. When the pilot requests clearance for a route deviation or for an ATC radar vector, the controller must evaluate the air traffic picture in the affected area, and coordinate with other controllers (if ATC jurisdictional boundaries may be crossed) before replying to the request. 4. It should be remembered that the controller’s primary function is to provide safe separation between aircraft. Any additional service, such as weather avoidance assistance, can only be provided to the extent that it does not derogate the primary function. It’s also worth noting that the separation workload is generally greater than normal when weather disrupts the usual flow of traffic. ATC radar limitations and frequency congestion may also be a factor in limiting the controller’s capability to provide additional service. 5. It is very important, therefore, that the request for deviation or radar vector be forwarded to ATC as far in advance as possible. Delay in submitting it may delay or even preclude ATC approval or require that additional restrictions be placed on the clearance. Insofar as possible the following information should Meteorology 6. To a large degree, the assistance that might be rendered by ATC will depend upon the weather information available to controllers. Due to the extremely transitory nature of severe weather situations, the controller’s weather information may be of only limited value if based on weather observed on radar only. Frequent updates by pilots giving specific information as to the area affected, altitudes, intensity and nature of the severe weather can be of considerable value. Such reports are relayed by radio or phone to other pilots and controllers and also receive widespread teletypewriter dissemination. 7. Obtaining IFR clearance or an ATC radar vector to circumnavigate severe weather can often be accommodated more readily in the en route areas away from terminals because there is usually less congestion and, therefore, offer greater freedom of action. In terminal areas, the problem is more acute because of traffic density, ATC coordination requirements, complex departure and arrival routes, adjacent airports, etc. As a consequence, controllers are less likely to be able to accommodate all requests for weather detours in a terminal area or be in a position to volunteer such routing to the pilot. Nevertheless, pilots should not hesitate to advise controllers of any observed severe weather and should specifically advise controllers if they desire circumnavigation of observed weather. c. Procedures for Weather Deviations and Other Contingencies in Oceanic Controlled Airspace. 1. When the pilot initiates communications with ATC, rapid response may be obtained by stating “WEATHER DEVIATION REQUIRED” to indicate 7−1−37 AIM 10/12/17 priority is desired on the frequency and for ATC response. 2. The pilot still retains the option of initiating the communications using the urgency call “PAN− PAN” 3 times to alert all listening parties of a special handling condition which will receive ATC priority for issuance of a clearance or assistance. 3. ATC will: (a) Approve the deviation. (b) Provide vertical separation and then approve the deviation; or (c) If ATC is unable to establish vertical separation, ATC must advise the pilot that standard separation cannot be applied; provide essential traffic information for all affected aircraft, to the extent practicable; and if possible, suggest a course of action. ATC may suggest that the pilot climb or descend to a contingency altitude (1,000 feet above or below that assigned if operating above FL 290; 500 feet above or below that assigned if operating at or below FL 290). PHRASEOLOGY− STANDARD SEPARATION NOT AVAILABLE, DEVIATE AT PILOT’S DISCRETION; SUGGEST CLIMB (or descent) TO (appropriate altitude); TRAFFIC (position and altitude); REPORT DEVIATION COMPLETE. 4. The pilot will follow the ATC advisory altitude when approximately 10 NM from track as well as execute the procedures detailed in paragraph 7−1−14c5. 5. If contact cannot be established or revised ATC clearance or advisory is not available and deviation from track is required, the pilot must take the following actions: (a) If possible, deviate away from an organized track or route system. (b) Broadcast aircraft position and intentions on the frequency in use, as well as on frequency 121.5 MHz at suitable intervals stating: flight identification (operator call sign), flight level, track code or ATS route designator, and extent of deviation expected. (e) Deviations of less than 10 NM should REMAIN at ASSIGNED altitude. Otherwise, when the aircraft is approximately 10 NM from track, initiate an altitude change based on the following criteria: TBL 7−1−5 Route Centerline/Track Deviations >10 NM Altitude Change EAST (000−179 magnetic) LEFT DESCEND 300 ft RIGHT CLIMB 300 ft LEFT CLIMB 300 ft RIGHT DESCEND 300 ft WEST (180−359 magnetic) Pilot Memory Slogan: “East right up, West right down.” (f) When returning to track, be at assigned flight level when the aircraft is within approximately 10 NM of centerline. (g) If contact was not established prior to deviating, continue to attempt to contact ATC to obtain a clearance. If contact was established, continue to keep ATC advised of intentions and obtain essential traffic information. 7−1−15. Runway Visual Range (RVR) There are currently two configurations of RVR in the NAS commonly identified as Taskers and New Generation RVR. The Taskers are the existing configuration which uses transmissometer technology. The New Generation RVRs were deployed in November 1994 and use forward scatter technology. The New Generation RVRs are currently being deployed in the NAS to replace the existing Taskers. a. RVR values are measured by transmissometers mounted on 14−foot towers along the runway. A full RVR system consists of: 1. Transmissometer projector and related items. 2. Transmissometer receiver (detector) and related items. 3. Analog 4. recorder. (c) Watch for conflicting traffic both visually and by reference to TCAS (if equipped). (d) Turn on aircraft exterior lights. 7−1−38 5. Signal data converter and related items. mer. 6. Remote digital or remote display program- Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM b. The transmissometer projector and receiver are mounted on towers 250 feet apart. A known intensity of light is emitted from the projector and is measured by the receiver. Any obscuring matter such as rain, snow, dust, fog, haze or smoke reduces the light intensity arriving at the receiver. The resultant intensity measurement is then converted to an RVR value by the signal data converter. These values are displayed by readout equipment in the associated air traffic facility and updated approximately once every minute for controller issuance to pilots. c. The signal data converter receives information on the high intensity runway edge light setting in use (step 3, 4, or 5); transmission values from the transmissometer and the sensing of day or night conditions. From the three data sources, the system will compute appropriate RVR values. d. An RVR transmissometer established on a 250 foot baseline provides digital readouts to a minimum of 600 feet, which are displayed in 200 foot increments to 3,000 feet and in 500 foot increments from 3,000 feet to a maximum value of 6,000 feet. e. RVR values for Category IIIa operations extend down to 700 feet RVR; however, only 600 and 800 feet are reportable RVR increments. The 800 RVR reportable value covers a range of 701 feet to 900 feet and is therefore a valid minimum indication of Category IIIa operations. f. Approach categories with the corresponding minimum RVR values. (See TBL 7−1−6.) TBL 7−1−6 Approach Category/Minimum RVR Table Category Visibility (RVR) Nonprecision Category I Category II Category IIIa Category IIIb Category IIIc 2,400 feet 1,800 feet* 1,000 feet 700 feet 150 feet 0 feet * 1,400 feet with special equipment and authorization g. Ten minute maximum and minimum RVR values for the designated RVR runway are reported in the body of the aviation weather report when the prevailing visibility is less than one mile and/or the RVR is 6,000 feet or less. ATCTs report RVR when Meteorology the prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less and/or the RVR is 6,000 feet or less. h. Details on the requirements for the operational use of RVR are contained in FAA AC 97−1, Runway Visual Range (RVR). Pilots are responsible for compliance with minimums prescribed for their class of operations in the appropriate CFRs and/or operations specifications. i. RVR values are also measured by forward scatter meters mounted on 14−foot frangible fiberglass poles. A full RVR system consists of: 1. Forward scatter meter with a transmitter, receiver and associated items. 2. A runway light intensity monitor (RLIM). 3. An ambient light sensor (ALS). 4. A data processor unit (DPU). 5. Controller display (CD). j. The forward scatter meter is mounted on a 14−foot frangible pole. Infrared light is emitted from the transmitter and received by the receiver. Any obscuring matter such as rain, snow, dust, fog, haze or smoke increases the amount of scattered light reaching the receiver. The resulting measurement along with inputs from the runway light intensity monitor and the ambient light sensor are forwarded to the DPU which calculates the proper RVR value. The RVR values are displayed locally and remotely on controller displays. k. The runway light intensity monitors both the runway edge and centerline light step settings (steps 1 through 5). Centerline light step settings are used for CAT IIIb operations. Edge Light step settings are used for CAT I, II, and IIIa operations. l. New Generation RVRs can measure and display RVR values down to the lowest limits of Category IIIb operations (150 feet RVR). RVR values are displayed in 100 feet increments and are reported as follows: 1. 100−feet increments for products below 800 feet. 2. 200−feet increments for products between 800 feet and 3,000 feet. 3. 500−feet increments for products between 3,000 feet and 6,500 feet. 4. 25−meter increments for products below 150 meters. 7−1−39 AIM 5. 50−meter increments for products between 150 meters and 800 meters. 6. 100−meter increments for products between 800 meters and 1,200 meters. 7. 200−meter increments for products between 1,200 meters and 2,000 meters. 7−1−16. Reporting of Cloud Heights a. Ceiling, by definition in the CFRs and as used in aviation weather reports and forecasts, is the height above ground (or water) level of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomenon that is reported as “broken,” “overcast,” or “obscuration,” e.g., an aerodrome forecast (TAF) which reads “BKN030” refers to height above ground level. An area forecast which reads “BKN030” indicates that the height is above mean sea level. REFERENCE− AIM, Paragraph 7−1−30 , Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR), defines “broken,” “overcast,” and “obscuration.” b. Pilots usually report height values above MSL, since they determine heights by the altimeter. This is taken in account when disseminating and otherwise applying information received from pilots. (“Ceiling” heights are always above ground level.) In reports disseminated as PIREPs, height references are given the same as received from pilots, that is, above MSL. c. In area forecasts or inflight advisories, ceilings are denoted by the contraction “CIG” when used with sky cover symbols as in “LWRG TO CIG OVC005,” or the contraction “AGL” after, the forecast cloud height value. When the cloud base is given in height above MSL, it is so indicated by the contraction “MSL” or “ASL” following the height value. The heights of clouds tops, freezing level, icing, and turbulence are always given in heights above ASL or MSL. 7−1−17. Reporting Prevailing Visibility a. Surface (horizontal) visibility is reported in METAR reports in terms of statute miles and increments thereof; e.g., 1/16, 1/8, 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, 1/2, 5/ , 3/ , 7/ , 1, 1 1/ , etc. (Visibility reported by an 4 8 8 8 unaugmented automated site is reported differently than in a manual report, i.e., ASOS/AWSS: 0, 1/16, 1/8, 1/ , 1/ , 3/ , 1, 1 1/ 1 1/ 1 3/ 2, 2 1/ 3, 4, 5, etc., AWOS: 4 2 4 4, 2, 4, 2, 7−1−40 10/12/17 M1/4, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4, 1 1/2, 1 3/4, 2, 2 1/2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) Visibility is determined through the ability to see and identify preselected and prominent objects at a known distance from the usual point of observation. Visibilities which are determined to be less than 7 miles, identify the obscuring atmospheric condition; e.g., fog, haze, smoke, etc., or combinations thereof. b. Prevailing visibility is the greatest visibility equaled or exceeded throughout at least one half of the horizon circle, not necessarily contiguous. Segments of the horizon circle which may have a significantly different visibility may be reported in the remarks section of the weather report; i.e., the southeastern quadrant of the horizon circle may be determined to be 2 miles in mist while the remaining quadrants are determined to be 3 miles in mist. c. When the prevailing visibility at the usual point of observation, or at the tower level, is less than 4 miles, certificated tower personnel will take visibility observations in addition to those taken at the usual point of observation. The lower of these two values will be used as the prevailing visibility for aircraft operations. 7−1−18. Estimating Intensity of Rain and Ice Pellets a. Rain 1. Light. From scattered drops that, regardless of duration, do not completely wet an exposed surface up to a condition where individual drops are easily seen. 2. Moderate. Individual drops are not clearly identifiable; spray is observable just above pavements and other hard surfaces. 3. Heavy. Rain seemingly falls in sheets; individual drops are not identifiable; heavy spray to height of several inches is observed over hard surfaces. b. Ice Pellets 1. Light. Scattered pellets that do not completely cover an exposed surface regardless of duration. Visibility is not affected. 2. Moderate. Slow accumulation on ground. Visibility reduced by ice pellets to less than 7 statute miles. Meteorology 10/12/17 3. Heavy. Rapid accumulation on ground. Visibility reduced by ice pellets to less than 3 statute miles. 7−1−19. Estimating Intensity of Snow or Drizzle (Based on Visibility) a. Light. Visibility more than 1/2 statute mile. b. Moderate. Visibility from more than 1/ statute mile to 1/ statute mile. 4 2 c. Heavy. Visibility 1/4 statute mile or less. 7−1−20. Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) a. FAA air traffic facilities are required to solicit PIREPs when the following conditions are reported or forecast: ceilings at or below 5,000 feet; visibility at or below 5 miles (surface or aloft); thunderstorms and related phenomena; icing of light degree or greater; turbulence of moderate degree or greater; wind shear and reported or forecast volcanic ash clouds. b. Pilots are urged to cooperate and promptly volunteer reports of these conditions and other atmospheric data such as: cloud bases, tops and layers; flight visibility; precipitation; visibility restrictions such as haze, smoke and dust; wind at altitude; and temperature aloft. c. PIREPs should be given to the ground facility with which communications are established; i.e., FSS, ARTCC, or terminal ATC. One of the primary duties of the Inflight position is to serve as a collection point for the exchange of PIREPs with en route aircraft. d. If pilots are not able to make PIREPs by radio, reporting upon landing of the inflight conditions encountered to the nearest FSS or Weather Forecast Office will be helpful. Some of the uses made of the reports are: 1. The ATCT uses the reports to expedite the flow of air traffic in the vicinity of the field and for hazardous weather avoidance procedures. 2. The FSS uses the reports to brief other pilots, to provide inflight advisories, and weather avoidance information to en route aircraft. 3. The ARTCC uses the reports to expedite the flow of en route traffic, to determine most favorable altitudes, and to issue hazardous weather information within the center’s area. Meteorology AIM 4. The NWS uses the reports to verify or amend conditions contained in aviation forecast and advisories. In some cases, pilot reports of hazardous conditions are the triggering mechanism for the issuance of advisories. They also use the reports for pilot weather briefings. 5. The NWS, other government organizations, the military, and private industry groups use PIREPs for research activities in the study of meteorological phenomena. 6. All air traffic facilities and the NWS forward the reports received from pilots into the weather distribution system to assure the information is made available to all pilots and other interested parties. e. The FAA, NWS, and other organizations that enter PIREPs into the weather reporting system use the format listed in TBL 7−1−7. Items 1 through 6 are included in all transmitted PIREPs along with one or more of items 7 through 13. Although the PIREP should be as complete and concise as possible, pilots should not be overly concerned with strict format or phraseology. The important thing is that the information is relayed so other pilots may benefit from your observation. If a portion of the report needs clarification, the ground station will request the information. Completed PIREPs will be transmitted to weather circuits as in the following examples: EXAMPLE− 1. KCMH UA /OV APE 230010/TM 1516/FL085/TP BE20/SK BKN065/WX FV03SM HZ FU/TA 20/TB LGT NOTE− 1. One zero miles southwest of Appleton VOR; time 1516 UTC; altitude eight thousand five hundred; aircraft type BE200; bases of the broken cloud layer is six thousand five hundred; flight visibility 3 miles with haze and smoke; air temperature 20 degrees Celsius; light turbulence. EXAMPLE− 2. KCRW UV /OV KBKW 360015−KCRW/TM 1815/FL120//TP BE99/SK IMC/WX RA/TA M08 /WV 290030/TB LGT−MDT/IC LGT RIME/RM MDT MXD ICG DURC KROA NWBND FL080−100 1750Z NOTE− 2. From 15 miles north of Beckley VOR to Charleston VOR; time 1815 UTC; altitude 12,000 feet; type aircraft, BE−99; in clouds; rain; temperature minus 8 Celsius; wind 290 degrees magnetic at 30 knots; light to moderate turbulence; light rime icing during climb northwestbound from Roanoke, VA, between 8,000 and 10,000 feet at 1750 UTC. 7−1−41 AIM 10/12/17 TBL 7−1−7 PIREP Element Code Chart PIREP ELEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3−letter station identifier Report type Location Time Altitude Type Aircraft Sky cover 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Weather Temperature Wind Turbulence Icing Remarks PIREP CODE XXX UA or UUA /OV /TM /FL /TP /SK /WX /TA /WV /TB /IC /RM CONTENTS Nearest weather reporting location to the reported phenomenon Routine or Urgent PIREP In relation to a VOR Coordinated Universal Time Essential for turbulence and icing reports Essential for turbulence and icing reports Cloud height and coverage (sky clear, few, scattered, broken, or overcast) Flight visibility, precipitation, restrictions to visibility, etc. Degrees Celsius Direction in degrees magnetic north and speed in knots See AIM paragraph 7−1−23 See AIM paragraph 7−1−21 For reporting elements not included or to clarify previously reported items 7−1−21. PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing a. The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulativethrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance. In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional drag by an equal percentage. b. A pilot can expect icing when flying in visible precipitation, such as rain or cloud droplets, and the temperature is between +02 and −10 degrees Celsius. When icing is detected, a pilot should do one of two things, particularly if the aircraft is not equipped with deicing equipment; get out of the area of precipitation; or go to an altitude where the temperature is above freezing. This “warmer” altitude may not always be a lower altitude. Proper preflight action includes obtaining information on the freezing level and the above freezing levels in precipitation areas. Report icing to ATC, and if operating IFR, request new routing or altitude if icing will be a hazard. Be sure to give the type of aircraft to ATC when reporting icing. The following describes how to report icing conditions. 7−1−42 1. Trace. Ice becomes perceptible. Rate of accumulation slightly greater than sublimation. Deicing/anti-icing equipment is not utilized unless encountered for an extended period of time (over 1 hour). 2. Light. The rate of accumulation may create a problem if flight is prolonged in this environment (over 1 hour). Occasional use of deicing/anti-icing equipment removes/prevents accumulation. It does not present a problem if the deicing/anti-icing equipment is used. 3. Moderate. The rate of accumulation is such that even short encounters become potentially hazardous and use of deicing/anti-icing equipment or flight diversion is necessary. 4. Severe. The rate of accumulation is such that ice protection systems fail to remove the accumulation of ice, or ice accumulates in locations not normally prone to icing, such as areas aft of protected surfaces and any other areas identified by the manufacturer. Immediate exit from the condition is necessary. NOTE− Severe icing is aircraft dependent, as are the other categories of icing intensity. Severe icing may occur at any accumulation rate. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM EXAMPLE− Pilot report: give aircraft identification, location, time (UTC), intensity of type, altitude/FL, aircraft type, indicated air speed (IAS), and outside air temperature (OAT). 2. Clear ice. A glossy, clear, or translucent ice formed by the relatively slow freezing of large supercooled water droplets. 3. The OAT should be requested by the FSS or ATC if not included in the PIREP. NOTE− 1. Rime ice. Rough, milky, opaque ice formed by the instantaneous freezing of small supercooled water droplets. 7−1−22. Definitions of Inflight Icing Terms See TBL 7−1−8, Icing Types, and TBL 7−1−9, Icing Conditions. TBL 7−1−8 Icing Types Clear Ice Glaze Ice See Glaze Ice. Ice, sometimes clear and smooth, but usually containing some air pockets, which results in a lumpy translucent appearance. Glaze ice results from supercooled drops/droplets striking a surface but not freezing rapidly on contact. Glaze ice is denser, harder, and sometimes more transparent than rime ice. Factors, which favor glaze formation, are those that favor slow dissipation of the heat of fusion (i.e., slight supercooling and rapid accretion). With larger accretions, the ice shape typically includes “horns” protruding from unprotected leading edge surfaces. It is the ice shape, rather than the clarity or color of the ice, which is most likely to be accurately assessed from the cockpit. The terms “clear” and “glaze” have been used for essentially the same type of ice accretion, although some reserve “clear” for thinner accretions which lack horns and conform to the airfoil. Intercycle Ice Ice which accumulates on a protected surface between actuation cycles of a deicing system. Known or Observed or Actual ice observed visually to be on the aircraft by the flight crew or identified by on−board Detected Ice Accretion sensors. Mixed Ice Simultaneous appearance or a combination of rime and glaze ice characteristics. Since the clarity, color, and shape of the ice will be a mixture of rime and glaze characteristics, accurate identification of mixed ice from the cockpit may be difficult. Residual Ice Ice which remains on a protected surface immediately after the actuation of a deicing system. Rime Ice A rough, milky, opaque ice formed by the rapid freezing of supercooled drops/droplets after they strike the aircraft. The rapid freezing results in air being trapped, giving the ice its opaque appearance and making it porous and brittle. Rime ice typically accretes along the stagnation line of an airfoil and is more regular in shape and conformal to the airfoil than glaze ice. It is the ice shape, rather than the clarity or color of the ice, which is most likely to be accurately assessed from the cockpit. Runback Ice Ice which forms from the freezing or refreezing of water leaving protected surfaces and running back to unprotected surfaces. Note− Ice types are difficult for the pilot to discern and have uncertain effects on an airplane in flight. Ice type definitions will be included in the AIM for use in the “Remarks” section of the PIREP and for use in forecasting. Meteorology 7−1−43 AIM 10/12/17 TBL 7−1−9 Icing Conditions Appendix C Icing Conditions Forecast Icing Conditions Freezing Drizzle (FZDZ) Freezing Precipitation Freezing Rain (FZRA) Icing in Cloud Icing in Precipitation Known Icing Conditions Potential Icing Conditions Supercooled Drizzle Drops (SCDD) Supercooled Drops or /Droplets Supercooled Large Drops (SLD) 7−1−44 Appendix C (14 CFR, Part 25 and 29) is the certification icing condition standard for approving ice protection provisions on aircraft. The conditions are specified in terms of altitude, temperature, liquid water content (LWC), representative droplet size (mean effective drop diameter [MED]), and cloud horizontal extent. Environmental conditions expected by a National Weather Service or an FAA−approved weather provider to be conducive to the formation of inflight icing on aircraft. Drizzle is precipitation at ground level or aloft in the form of liquid water drops which have diameters less than 0.5 mm and greater than 0.05 mm. Freezing drizzle is drizzle that exists at air temperatures less than 0C (supercooled), remains in liquid form, and freezes upon contact with objects on the surface or airborne. Freezing precipitation is freezing rain or freezing drizzle falling through or outside of visible cloud. Rain is precipitation at ground level or aloft in the form of liquid water drops which have diameters greater than 0.5 mm. Freezing rain is rain that exists at air temperatures less than 0C (supercooled), remains in liquid form, and freezes upon contact with objects on the ground or in the air. Icing occurring within visible cloud. Cloud droplets (diameter < 0.05 mm) will be present; freezing drizzle and/or freezing rain may or may not be present. Icing occurring from an encounter with freezing precipitation, that is, supercooled drops with diameters exceeding 0.05 mm, within or outside of visible cloud. Atmospheric conditions in which the formation of ice is observed or detected in flight. Note− Because of the variability in space and time of atmospheric conditions, the existence of a report of observed icing does not assure the presence or intensity of icing conditions at a later time, nor can a report of no icing assure the absence of icing conditions at a later time. Atmospheric icing conditions that are typically defined by airframe manufacturers relative to temperature and visible moisture that may result in aircraft ice accretion on the ground or in flight. The potential icing conditions are typically defined in the Airplane Flight Manual or in the Airplane Operation Manual. Synonymous with freezing drizzle aloft. Water drops/droplets which remain unfrozen at temperatures below 0 C. Supercooled drops are found in clouds, freezing drizzle, and freezing rain in the atmosphere. These drops may impinge and freeze after contact on aircraft surfaces. Liquid droplets with diameters greater than 0.05 mm at temperatures less than 0C, i.e., freezing rain or freezing drizzle. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM 7−1−23. PIREPs Relating to Turbulence 5. Aircraft altitude or flight level. a. When encountering turbulence, pilots are urgently requested to report such conditions to ATC as soon as practicable. PIREPs relating to turbulence should state: 6. Type of aircraft. 1. Aircraft location. 7. Duration of turbulence. EXAMPLE− 1. Over Omaha, 1232Z, moderate turbulence in clouds at Flight Level three one zero, Boeing 707. 2. From five zero miles south of Albuquerque to three zero miles north of Phoenix, 1250Z, occasional moderate chop at Flight Level three three zero, DC8. 2. Time of occurrence in UTC. 3. Turbulence intensity. 4. Whether the turbulence occurred in or near clouds. b. Duration and classification of intensity should be made using TBL 7−1−10. TBL 7−1−10 Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table Intensity Aircraft Reaction Reaction Inside Aircraft Reporting Term−Definition Light Turbulence that momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in altitude and/or attitude (pitch, roll, yaw). Report as Light Turbulence; 1 or Turbulence that causes slight, rapid and somewhat rhythmic bumpiness without appreciable changes in altitude or attitude. Report as Light Chop. Occupants may feel a slight strain Occasional−Less than 1/3 of the time. against seat belts or shoulder straps. Unsecured objects may be displaced Intermittent−1/3 to 2/3. slightly. Food service may be conducted and little or no difficulty is Continuous−More than 2/3. encountered in walking. Moderate Turbulence that is similar to Light Turbulence but of greater intensity. Changes in altitude and/or attitude occur but the aircraft remains in positive control at all times. It usually causes variations in indicated airspeed. Report as Moderate Turbulence; 1 or Turbulence that is similar to Light Chop but of greater intensity. It causes rapid bumps or jolts without appreciable changes in aircraft altitude or attitude. Report as Moderate Chop.1 Occupants feel definite strains against NOTE seat belts or shoulder straps. Unse- 1. Pilots should report location(s), cured objects are dislodged. Food time (UTC), intensity, whether in or service and walking are difficult. near clouds, altitude, type of aircraft and, when applicable, duration of turbulence. Turbulence that causes large, abrupt changes in altitude and/or attitude. It usually causes large variations in indicated airspeed. Aircraft may be momentarily out of control. Report as Severe Turbulence. 1 Turbulence in which the aircraft is violently tossed about and is practically impossible to control. It may cause structural damage. Report as Extreme Turbulence. 1 Occupants are forced violently against EXAMPLES: seat belts or shoulder straps. Unsecured objects are tossed about. Food a. Over Omaha. 1232Z, Moderate Service and walking are impossible. Turbulence, in cloud, Flight Level 310, B707. Severe Extreme 2. Duration may be based on time between two locations or over a single location. All locations should be readily identifiable. b. From 50 miles south of Albuquerque to 30 miles north of Phoenix, 1210Z to 1250Z, occasional Moderate Chop, Flight Level 330, DC8. 1 High level turbulence (normally above 15,000 feet ASL) not associated with cumuliform cloudiness, including thunderstorms, should be reported as CAT (clear air turbulence) preceded by the appropriate intensity, or light or moderate chop. Meteorology 7−1−45 AIM 7−1−24. Wind Shear PIREPs a. Because unexpected changes in wind speed and direction can be hazardous to aircraft operations at low altitudes on approach to and departing from airports, pilots are urged to promptly volunteer reports to controllers of wind shear conditions they encounter. An advance warning of this information will assist other pilots in avoiding or coping with a wind shear on approach or departure. b. When describing conditions, use of the terms “negative” or “positive” wind shear should be avoided. PIREPs of “negative wind shear on final,” intended to describe loss of airspeed and lift, have been interpreted to mean that no wind shear was encountered. The recommended method for wind shear reporting is to state the loss or gain of airspeed and the altitudes at which it was encountered. EXAMPLE− 1. Denver Tower, Cessna 1234 encountered wind shear, loss of 20 knots at 400. 2. Tulsa Tower, American 721 encountered wind shear on final, gained 25 knots between 600 and 400 feet followed by loss of 40 knots between 400 feet and surface. 1. Pilots who are not able to report wind shear in these specific terms are encouraged to make reports in terms of the effect upon their aircraft. EXAMPLE− Miami Tower, Gulfstream 403 Charlie encountered an abrupt wind shear at 800 feet on final, max thrust required. 2. Pilots using Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs) should report the wind and altitude both above and below the shear level. 7−1−25. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) PIREPs CAT has become a very serious operational factor to flight operations at all levels and especially to jet 7−1−46 10/12/17 traffic flying in excess of 15,000 feet. The best available information on this phenomenon must come from pilots via the PIREP reporting procedures. All pilots encountering CAT conditions are urgently requested to report time, location, and intensity (light, moderate, severe, or extreme) of the element to the FAA facility with which they are maintaining radio contact. If time and conditions permit, elements should be reported according to the standards for other PIREPs and position reports. REFERENCE− AIM, Paragraph 7−1−23 , PIREPs Relating to Turbulence 7−1−26. Microbursts a. Relatively recent meteorological studies have confirmed the existence of microburst phenomenon. Microbursts are small scale intense downdrafts which, on reaching the surface, spread outward in all directions from the downdraft center. This causes the presence of both vertical and horizontal wind shears that can be extremely hazardous to all types and categories of aircraft, especially at low altitudes. Due to their small size, short life span, and the fact that they can occur over areas without surface precipitation, microbursts are not easily detectable using conventional weather radar or wind shear alert systems. b. Parent clouds producing microburst activity can be any of the low or middle layer convective cloud types. Note, however, that microbursts commonly occur within the heavy rain portion of thunderstorms, and in much weaker, benign appearing convective cells that have little or no precipitation reaching the ground. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−12 Evolution of a Microburst WIND SPEED HEIGHT (feet) 10-20 knots T-5 Min T-2 Min > 20 knots T + 5 Min T T + 10 Min 10,000 5,000 0 1 2 3 SCALE (miles) Vertical cross section of the evolution of a microburst wind field. T is the time of initial divergence at the surface. The shading refers to the vector wind speeds. Figure adapted from Wilson et al., 1984, Microburst Wind Structure and Evaluation of Doppler Radar for Wind Shear Detection, DOT/FAA Report No. DOT/FAA/PM-84/29, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 37 pp. c. The life cycle of a microburst as it descends in a convective rain shaft is seen in FIG 7−1−12. An important consideration for pilots is the fact that the microburst intensifies for about 5 minutes after it strikes the ground. d. Characteristics of microbursts include: 1. Size. The microburst downdraft is typically less than 1 mile in diameter as it descends from the cloud base to about 1,000−3,000 feet above the ground. In the transition zone near the ground, the downdraft changes to a horizontal outflow that can extend to approximately 2 1/2 miles in diameter. 2. Intensity. The downdrafts can be as strong as 6,000 feet per minute. Horizontal winds near the surface can be as strong as 45 knots resulting in a 90 knot shear (headwind to tailwind change for a traversing aircraft) across the microburst. These strong horizontal winds occur within a few hundred feet of the ground. Meteorology 3. Visual Signs. Microbursts can be found almost anywhere that there is convective activity. They may be embedded in heavy rain associated with a thunderstorm or in light rain in benign appearing virga. When there is little or no precipitation at the surface accompanying the microburst, a ring of blowing dust may be the only visual clue of its existence. 4. Duration. An individual microburst will seldom last longer than 15 minutes from the time it strikes the ground until dissipation. The horizontal winds continue to increase during the first 5 minutes with the maximum intensity winds lasting approximately 2−4 minutes. Sometimes microbursts are concentrated into a line structure, and under these conditions, activity may continue for as long as an hour. Once microburst activity starts, multiple microbursts in the same general area are not uncommon and should be expected. 7−1−47 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−13 Microburst Encounter During Takeoff A microburst encounter during takeoff. The airplane first encounters a headwind and experiences increasing performance (1), this is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component (2), a downdraft (3), and finally a strong tailwind (4), where 2 through 5 all result in decreasing performance of the airplane. Position (5) represents an extreme situation just prior to impact. Figure courtesy of Walter Frost, FWG Associates, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. e. Microburst wind shear may create a severe hazard for aircraft within 1,000 feet of the ground, particularly during the approach to landing and landing and take-off phases. The impact of a microburst on aircraft which have the unfortunate 7−1−48 experience of penetrating one is characterized in FIG 7−1−13. The aircraft may encounter a headwind (performance increasing) followed by a downdraft and tailwind (both performance decreasing), possibly resulting in terrain impact. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−14 NAS Wind Shear Product Systems (33) (39) (36) (9) f. Detection of Microbursts, Wind Shear and Gust Fronts. 1. FAA’s Integrated Wind Shear Detection Plan. (a) The FAA currently employs an integrated plan for wind shear detection that will significantly improve both the safety and capacity of the majority of the airports currently served by the air carriers. This plan integrates several programs, such as the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), Weather System Processor (WSP), and Low Level Wind Shear Alert Systems (LLWAS) into a single strategic Meteorology concept that significantly improves the aviation weather information in the terminal area. (See FIG 7−1−14.) (b) The wind shear/microburst information and warnings are displayed on the ribbon display terminals (RBDT) located in the tower cabs. They are identical (and standardized) in the LLWAS, TDWR and WSP systems, and so designed that the controller does not need to interpret the data, but simply read the displayed information to the pilot. The RBDTs are constantly monitored by the controller to ensure the rapid and timely dissemination of any hazardous event(s) to the pilot. 7−1−49 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−15 LLWAS Siting Criteria (c) The early detection of a wind shear/micro−burst event, and the subsequent warning(s) issued to an aircraft on approach or departure, will alert the pilot/crew to the potential of, and to be prepared for, a situation that could become very dangerous! Without these warnings, the aircraft may NOT be able to climb out of, or safely transition, the event, resulting in a catastrophe. The air carriers, working with the FAA, have developed specialized training programs using their simulators to train and prepare their pilots on the demanding aircraft procedures required to escape these very dangerous wind shear and/or microburst encounters. 7−1−50 2. Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS). (a) The LLWAS provides wind data and software processes to detect the presence of hazardous wind shear and microbursts in the vicinity of an airport. Wind sensors, mounted on poles sometimes as high as 150 feet, are (ideally) located 2,000 − 3,500 feet, but not more than 5,000 feet, from the centerline of the runway. (See FIG 7−1−15.) Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−16 Warning Boxes (b) LLWAS was fielded in 1988 at 110 airports across the nation. Many of these systems have been replaced by new TDWR and WSP technology. Eventually all LLWAS systems will be phased out; however, 39 airports will be upgraded to the LLWAS−NE (Network Expansion) system, which employs the very latest software and sensor technology. The new LLWAS−NE systems will not only provide the controller with wind shear warnings and alerts, including wind shear/microburst detection at the airport wind sensor location, but will also provide the location of the hazards relative to the airport runway(s). It will also have the flexibility and capability to grow with the airport as new runways are built. As many as 32 sensors, strategically located around the airport and in relationship to its runway configuration, can be accommodated by the LLWAS−NE network. 3. Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). (a) TDWRs are being deployed at 45 locations across the U.S. Optimum locations for TDWRs are 8 to 12 miles off of the airport proper, and designed to look at the airspace around and over the airport to detect microbursts, gust fronts, wind shifts Meteorology and precipitation intensities. TDWR products advise the controller of wind shear and microburst events impacting all runways and the areas 1/2 mile on either side of the extended centerline of the runways out to 3 miles on final approach and 2 miles out on departure. (FIG 7−1−16 is a theoretical view of the warning boxes, including the runway, that the software uses in determining the location(s) of wind shear or microbursts). These warnings are displayed (as depicted in the examples in subparagraph 5) on the RBDT. (b) It is very important to understand what TDWR does NOT DO: (1) It DOES NOT warn of wind shear outside of the alert boxes (on the arrival and departure ends of the runways); (2) It DOES NOT detect wind shear that is NOT a microburst or a gust front; (3) It DOES NOT detect gusty or cross wind conditions; and (4) It DOES NOT detect turbulence. However, research and development is continuing on these systems. Future improvements may include such areas as storm motion (movement), improved 7−1−51 AIM 10/12/17 gust front detection, storm growth and decay, microburst prediction, and turbulence detection. 34 airports across the nation, substantially increasing the safety of the American flying public. (c) TDWR also provides a geographical situation display (GSD) for supervisors and traffic management specialists for planning purposes. The GSD displays (in color) 6 levels of weather (precipitation), gust fronts and predicted storm movement(s). This data is used by the tower supervisor(s), traffic management specialists and controllers to plan for runway changes and arrival/departure route changes in order to both reduce aircraft delays and increase airport capacity. 5. Operational aspects of LLWAS, TDWR and WSP. 4. Weather System Processor (WSP). (a) The WSP provides the controller, supervisor, traffic management specialist, and ultimately the pilot, with the same products as the terminal doppler weather radar (TDWR) at a fraction of the cost of a TDWR. This is accomplished by utilizing new technologies to access the weather channel capabilities of the existing ASR−9 radar located on or near the airport, thus eliminating the requirements for a separate radar location, land acquisition, support facilities and the associated communication landlines and expenses. (b) The WSP utilizes the same RBDT display as the TDWR and LLWAS, and, just like TDWR, also has a GSD for planning purposes by supervisors, traffic management specialists and controllers. The WSP GSD emulates the TDWR display, i.e., it also depicts 6 levels of precipitation, gust fronts and predicted storm movement, and like the TDWR GSD, is used to plan for runway changes and arrival/departure route changes in order to reduce aircraft delays and to increase airport capacity. (c) This system is currently under development and is operating in a developmental test status at the Albuquerque, New Mexico, airport. When fielded, the WSP is expected to be installed at 7−1−52 To demonstrate how this data is used by both the controller and the pilot, 3 ribbon display examples and their explanations are presented: (a) MICROBURST ALERTS EXAMPLE− This is what the controller sees on his/her ribbon display in the tower cab. 27A MBA 35K− 2MF 250 20 NOTE− (See FIG 7−1−17 to see how the TDWR/WSP determines the microburst location). This is what the controller will say when issuing the alert. PHRASEOLOGY− RUNWAY 27 ARRIVAL, MICROBURST ALERT, 35 KT LOSS 2 MILE FINAL, THRESHOLD WIND 250 AT 20. In plain language, the controller is telling the pilot that on approach to runway 27, there is a microburst alert on the approach lane to the runway, and to anticipate or expect a 35 knot loss of airspeed at approximately 2 miles out on final approach (where it will first encounter the phenomena). With that information, the aircrew is forewarned, and should be prepared to apply wind shear/microburst escape procedures should they decide to continue the approach. Additionally, the surface winds at the airport for landing runway 27 are reported as 250 degrees at 20 knots. NOTE− Threshold wind is at pilot’s request or as deemed appropriate by the controller. REFERENCE− FAA Order JO 7110.65, Paragraph 3−1−8b2(a), Air Traffic Control, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Advisories Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−17 Microburst Alert (b) WIND SHEAR ALERTS EXAMPLE− This is what the controller sees on his/her ribbon display in the tower cab. 27A WSA 20K− 3MF 200 15 NOTE− (See FIG 7−1−18 to see how the TDWR/WSP determines the wind shear location). In plain language, the controller is advising the aircraft arriving on runway 27 that at about 3 miles out they can expect to encounter a wind shear condition that will decrease their airspeed by 20 knots and possibly encounter turbulence. Additionally, the airport surface winds for landing runway 27 are reported as 200 degrees at 15 knots. This is what the controller will say when issuing the alert. NOTE− Threshold wind is at pilot’s request or as deemed appropriate by the controller. PHRASEOLOGY− RUNWAY 27 ARRIVAL, WIND SHEAR ALERT, 20 KT LOSS 3 MILE FINAL, THRESHOLD WIND 200 AT 15. REFERENCE− FAA Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Advisories, Paragraph 3−1−8b2(a). Meteorology 7−1−53 AIM 10/12/17 FIG 7−1−18 Weak Microburst Alert 7−1−54 Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−19 Gust Front Alert (c) MULTIPLE WIND SHEAR ALERTS EXAMPLE− This is what the controller sees on his/her ribbon display in the tower cab. PHRASEOLOGY− MULTIPLE WIND SHEAR ALERTS. RUNWAY 27 ARRIVAL, WIND SHEAR ALERT, 20 KT GAIN ON RUNWAY; RUNWAY 27 DEPARTURE, WIND SHEAR ALERT, 20 KT GAIN ON RUNWAY, WIND 250 AT 20. NOTE− (See FIG 7−1−19 to see how the TDWR/WSP determines the gust front/wind shear location.) EXAMPLE− In this example, the controller is advising arriving and departing aircraft that they could encounter a wind shear condition right on the runway due to a gust front (significant change of wind direction) with the possibility of a 20 knot gain in airspeed associated with the gust front. Additionally, the airport surface winds (for the runway in use) are reported as 250 degrees at 20 knots. This is what the controller will say when issuing the alert. REFERENCE− FAA Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Advisories, Paragraph 3−1−8b2(d). 27A WSA 20K+ RWY 250 20 27D WSA 20K+ RWY 250 20 Meteorology 7−1−55 AIM 10/12/17 6. The Terminal Weather Information for Pilots System (TWIP). FIG 7−1−20 within 30 NM surrounding the terminal area, and expected weather that will impact airport operations. During inclement weather, i.e., whenever a predetermined level of precipitation or wind shear is detected within 15 miles of the terminal area, TWIP products are updated once each minute for text messages and once every five minutes for character graphic messages. During good weather (below the predetermined precipitation or wind shear parameters) each message is updated every 10 minutes. These products are intended to improve the situational awareness of the pilot/flight crew, and to aid in flight planning prior to arriving or departing the terminal area. It is important to understand that, in the context of TWIP, the predetermined levels for inclement versus good weather has nothing to do with the criteria for VFR/MVFR/IFR/LIFR; it only deals with precipitation, wind shears and microbursts. TWIP Image of Convective Weather at MCO International TWIP−Equipped Airports (a) With the increase in the quantity and quality of terminal weather information available through TDWR, the next step is to provide this information directly to pilots rather than relying on voice communications from ATC. The National Airspace System has long been in need of a means of delivering terminal weather information to the cockpit more efficiently in terms of both speed and accuracy to enhance pilot awareness of weather hazards and reduce air traffic controller workload. With the TWIP capability, terminal weather information, both alphanumerically and graphically, is now available directly to the cockpit at 43 airports in the U.S. NAS. (See FIG 7−1−20.) TBL 7−1−11 Airport Identifier Andrews AFB, MD KADW Hartsfield−Jackson Atlanta Intl Airport KATL Nashville Intl Airport KBNA Logan Intl Airport KBOS Baltimore/Washington Intl Airport KBWI Hopkins Intl Airport KCLE Charlotte/Douglas Intl Airport KCLT Port Columbus Intl Airport KCMH Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Intl Airport KCVG (b) TWIP products are generated using weather data from the TDWR or the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) testbed. TWIP products are generated and stored in the form of text and character graphic messages. Software has been developed to allow TDWR or ITWS to format the data and send the TWIP products to a database resident at Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC). These products can then be accessed by pilots using the ARINC Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) data link services. Airline dispatchers can also access this database and send messages to specific aircraft whenever wind shear activity begins or ends at an airport. (c) TWIP products include descriptions and character graphics of microburst alerts, wind shear alerts, significant precipitation, convective activity 7−1−56 Dallas Love Field Airport KDAL James M. Cox Intl Airport KDAY Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport KDCA Denver Intl Airport KDEN Dallas−Fort Worth Intl Airport KDFW Detroit Metro Wayne County Airport KDTW Newark Liberty Intl Airport KEWR Fort Lauderdale−Hollywood Intl Airport KFLL William P. Hobby Airport KHOU Washington Dulles Intl Airport KIAD George Bush Intercontinental Airport KIAH Wichita Mid−Continent Airport KICT Indianapolis Intl Airport KIND Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM b. While some volcanoes in the U.S. are monitored, many in remote areas are not. These unmonitored volcanoes may erupt without prior warning to the aviation community. A pilot observing a volcanic eruption who has not had previous notification of it may be the only witness to the eruption. Pilots are strongly encouraged to transmit a PIREP regarding volcanic eruptions and any observed volcanic ash clouds or detection of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas associated with volcanic activity. Airport Identifier John F. Kennedy Intl Airport KJFK LaGuardia Airport KLGA Kansas City Intl Airport KMCI Orlando Intl Airport KMCO Midway Intl Airport KMDW Memphis Intl Airport KMEM Miami Intl Airport KMIA General Mitchell Intl Airport KMKE Minneapolis St. Paul Intl Airport KMSP Louis Armstrong New Orleans Intl Airport KMSY Will Rogers World Airport KOKC O’Hare Intl Airport KORD Palm Beach Intl Airport KPBI Philadelphia Intl Airport KPHL d. Pilots should verbally transmit the data required in items 1 through 8 of the VAR as soon as possible. The data required in items 9 through 16 of the VAR should be relayed after landing if possible. Pittsburgh Intl Airport KPIT 7−1−28. Thunderstorms Raleigh−Durham Intl Airport KRDU Louisville Intl Airport KSDF Salt Lake City Intl Airport KSLC Lambert−St. Louis Intl Airport KSTL Tampa Intl Airport KTPA a. Turbulence, hail, rain, snow, lightning, sustained updrafts and downdrafts, icing conditions−all are present in thunderstorms. While there is some evidence that maximum turbulence exists at the middle level of a thunderstorm, recent studies show little variation of turbulence intensity with altitude. Tulsa Intl Airport KTUL 7−1−27. PIREPs Relating to Volcanic Ash Activity a. Volcanic eruptions which send ash into the upper atmosphere occur somewhere around the world several times each year. Flying into a volcanic ash cloud can be extremely dangerous. At least two B747s have lost all power in all four engines after such an encounter. Regardless of the type aircraft, some damage is almost certain to ensue after an encounter with a volcanic ash cloud. Additionally, studies have shown that volcanic eruptions are the only significant source of large quantities of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas at jet-cruising altitudes. Therefore, the detection and subsequent reporting of SO2 is of significant importance. Although SO2 is colorless, its presence in the atmosphere should be suspected when a sulphur-like or rotten egg odor is present throughout the cabin. Meteorology c. Pilots should submit PIREPs regarding volcanic activity using the Volcanic Activity Reporting (VAR) form as illustrated in Appendix 2. If a VAR form is not immediately available, relay enough information to identify the position and type of volcanic activity. b. There is no useful correlation between the external visual appearance of thunderstorms and the severity or amount of turbulence or hail within them. The visible thunderstorm cloud is only a portion of a turbulent system whose updrafts and downdrafts often extend far beyond the visible storm cloud. Severe turbulence can be expected up to 20 miles from severe thunderstorms. This distance decreases to about 10 miles in less severe storms. c. Weather radar, airborne or ground based, will normally reflect the areas of moderate to heavy precipitation (radar does not detect turbulence). The frequency and severity of turbulence generally increases with the radar reflectivity which is closely associated with the areas of highest liquid water content of the storm. NO FLIGHT PATH THROUGH AN AREA OF STRONG OR VERY STRONG RADAR ECHOES SEPARATED BY 20−30 MILES OR LESS MAY BE CONSIDERED FREE OF SEVERE TURBULENCE. d. Turbulence beneath a thunderstorm should not be minimized. This is especially true when the 7−1−57 AIM 10/12/17 relative humidity is low in any layer between the surface and 15,000 feet. Then the lower altitudes may be characterized by strong out flowing winds and severe turbulence. 4. Don’t fly without airborne radar into a cloud mass containing scattered embedded thunderstorms. Scattered thunderstorms not embedded usually can be visually circumnavigated. e. The probability of lightning strikes occurring to aircraft is greatest when operating at altitudes where temperatures are between minus 5 degrees Celsius and plus 5 degrees Celsius. Lightning can strike aircraft flying in the clear in the vicinity of a thunderstorm. 5. Don’t trust the visual appearance to be a reliable indicator of the turbulence inside a thunderstorm. f. METAR reports do not include a descriptor for severe thunderstorms. However, by understanding severe thunderstorm criteria, i.e., 50 knot winds or 3/ inch hail, the information is available in the report 4 to know that one is occurring. g. Current weather radar systems are able to objectively determine precipitation intensity. These precipitation intensity areas are described as “light,” “moderate,” “heavy,” and “extreme.” REFERENCE− Pilot/Controller Glossary− Precipitation Radar Weather Descriptions EXAMPLE− 1. Alert provided by an ATC facility to an aircraft: (aircraft identification) EXTREME precipitation between ten o’clock and two o’clock, one five miles. Precipitation area is two five miles in diameter. 2. Alert provided by an FSS: (aircraft identification) EXTREME precipitation two zero miles west of Atlanta V−O−R, two five miles wide, moving east at two zero knots, tops flight level three niner zero. 7−1−29. Thunderstorm Flying a. Thunderstorm Avoidance. Never regard any thunderstorm lightly, even when radar echoes are of light intensity. Avoiding thunderstorms is the best policy. Following are some Do’s and Don’ts of thunderstorm avoidance: 1. Don’t land or takeoff in the face of an approaching thunderstorm. A sudden gust front of low level turbulence could cause loss of control. 2. Don’t attempt to fly under a thunderstorm even if you can see through to the other side. Turbulence and wind shear under the storm could be hazardous. 3. Don’t attempt to fly under the anvil of a thunderstorm. There is a potential for severe and extreme clear air turbulence. 7−1−58 6. Don’t assume that ATC will offer radar navigation guidance or deviations around thunderstorms. 7. Don’t use data-linked weather next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) mosaic imagery as the sole means for negotiating a path through a thunderstorm area (tactical maneuvering). 8. Do remember that the data-linked NEXRAD mosaic imagery shows where the weather was, not where the weather is. The weather conditions may be 15 to 20 minutes older than the age indicated on the display. 9. Do listen to chatter on the ATC frequency for Pilot Weather Reports (PIREP) and other aircraft requesting to deviate or divert. 10. Do ask ATC for radar navigation guidance or to approve deviations around thunderstorms, if needed. 11. Do use data-linked weather NEXRAD mosaic imagery (for example, Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)) for route selection to avoid thunderstorms entirely (strategic maneuvering). 12. Do advise ATC, when switched to another controller, that you are deviating for thunderstorms before accepting to rejoin the original route. 13. Do ensure that after an authorized weather deviation, before accepting to rejoin the original route, that the route of flight is clear of thunderstorms. 14. Do avoid by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an intense radar echo. This is especially true under the anvil of a large cumulonimbus. 15. Do circumnavigate the entire area if the area has 6/10 thunderstorm coverage. 16. Do remember that vivid and frequent lightning indicates the probability of a severe thunderstorm. Meteorology 10/12/17 17. Do regard as extremely hazardous any thunderstorm with tops 35,000 feet or higher whether the top is visually sighted or determined by radar. 18. Do give a PIREP for the flight conditions. 19. Do divert and wait out the thunderstorms on the ground if unable to navigate around an area of thunderstorms. 20. Do contact Flight Service for assistance in avoiding thunderstorms. Flight Service specialists have NEXRAD mosaic radar imagery and NEXRAD single site radar with unique features such as base and composite reflectivity, echo tops, and VAD wind profiles. b. If you cannot avoid penetrating a thunderstorm, following are some Do’s before entering the storm: 1. Tighten your safety belt, put on your shoulder harness (if installed), if and secure all loose objects. AIM 5. Establish power settings for turbulence penetration airspeed recommended in the aircraft manual. 6. Turn up cockpit lights to highest intensity to lessen temporary blindness from lightning. 7. If using automatic pilot, disengage Altitude Hold Mode and Speed Hold Mode. The automatic altitude and speed controls will increase maneuvers of the aircraft thus increasing structural stress. 8. If using airborne radar, tilt the antenna up and down occasionally. This will permit the detection of other thunderstorm activity at altitudes other than the one being flown. c. Following are some Do’s and Don’ts during the thunderstorm penetration: 1. Do keep your eyes on your instruments. Looking outside the cockpit can increase danger of temporary blindness from lightning. 2. Plan and hold the course to take the aircraft through the storm in a minimum time. 2. Don’t change power settings; maintain settings for the recommended turbulence penetration airspeed. 3. To avoid the most critical icing, establish a penetration altitude below the freezing level or above the level of -15ºC. 3. Do maintain constant attitude. Allow the altitude and airspeed to fluctuate. 4. Verify that pitot heat is on and turn on carburetor heat or jet engine anti-ice. Icing can be rapid at any altitude and cause almost instantaneous power failure and/or loss of airspeed indication. Meteorology 4. Don’t turn back once you are in the thunderstorm. A straight course through the storm most likely will get the aircraft out of the hazards most quickly. In addition, turning maneuvers increase stress on the aircraft. 7−1−59 AIM 10/12/17 7−1−30. Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) FIG 7−1−21 Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) (Front) Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) (Front) KPIT 091730Z 0918/1024 15005KT 5SM HZ FEW020 WS010/31022KT FM091930 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 0920/0922 1/2SM +TSRA OVC008CB FM100100 27008KT 5SM SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB30 1004/1007 1SM -RA BR FM101015 18005KT 6SM -SHRA OVC020 BECMG 1013/1015 P6SM NSW SKC NOTE: Users are cautioned to confirm DATE and TIME of the TAF. For example FM100000 is 0000Z on the 10th. Do not confuse with 1000Z! METAR KPIT 091955Z COR 22015G25KT 3/4SM R28L/2600FT TSRA OVC010CB 18/16 A2992 RMK SLP045 T01820159 TAF Forecast TAF KPIT 091730Z 0918/1024 15005KT 5SM HZ FEW020 WS010/31022KT 7−1−60 Explanation Report Message type: TAF-routine or TAF AMD-amended forecast, METARhourly, SPECI-special or TESTM-non-commissioned ASOS report ICAO location indicator Issuance time: ALL times in UTC “Z”, 2-digit date, 4-digit time Valid period, either 24 hours or 30 hours. The first two digits of EACH four digit number indicate the date of the valid period, the final two di­ gits indicate the time (valid from 18Z on the 9th to 24Z on the 10th). In U.S. METAR: CORrected ob; or AUTOmated ob for automated re­ port with no human intervention; omitted when observer logs on. Wind: 3 digit true-north direction, nearest 10 degrees (or VaRiaBle); next 2-3 digits for speed and unit, KT (KMH or MPS); as needed, Gust and maximum speed; 00000KT for calm; for METAR, if direction varies 60 degrees or more, Variability appended, e.g., 180V260 Prevailing visibility; in U.S., Statute Miles & fractions; above 6 miles in TAF Plus6SM. (Or, 4-digit minimum visibility in meters and as re­ quired, lowest value with direction) Runway Visual Range: R; 2-digit runway designator Left, Center, or Right as needed; “/”, Minus or Plus in U.S., 4-digit value, FeeT in U.S., (usually meters elsewhere); 4-digit value Variability 4-digit value (and tendency Down, Up or No change) Significant present, forecast and recent weather: see table (on back) Cloud amount, height and type: Sky Clear 0/8, FEW >0/8-2/8, ScaTtered 3/8-4/8, BroKeN 5/8-7/8, OverCast 8/8; 3-digit height in hundreds of ft; Towering Cumulus or CumulonimBus in METAR; in TAF, only CB. Vertical Visibility for obscured sky and height “VV004”. More than 1 layer may be reported or forecast. In automated METAR reports only, CleaR for “clear below 12,000 feet” Temperature: degrees Celsius; first 2 digits, temperature “/” last 2 digits, dew-point temperature; Minus for below zero, e.g., M06 Altimeter setting: indicator and 4 digits; in U.S., A-inches and hun­ dredths; (Q-hectoPascals, e.g., Q1013) In U.S. TAF, non-convective low-level (≤ 2,000 ft) Wind Shear; 3-digit height (hundreds of ft); “/”; 3-digit wind direction and 2-3 digit wind speed above the indicated height, and unit, KT METAR KPIT 091955Z COR 22015G25KT ¾SM R28L/2600FT TSRA OVC 010CB 18/16 A2992 Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM FIG 7−1−22 Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) (Back) Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) (Back) FM091930 TEMPO 0920/0922 PROB30 1004/1007 BECMG 1013/1015 In METAR, ReMarK indicator & remarks. For example: Sea- Level Pressure in hectoPascals & tenths, as shown: 1004.5 hPa; Temp/dewpoint in tenths °C, as shown: temp. 18.2°C, dew-point 15.9°C FroM: changes are expected at: 2-digit date, 2-digit hour, and 2-digit minute beginning time: indicates significant change. Each FM starts on a new line, indented 5 spaces TEMPOrary: changes expected for <1 hour and in total, < half of the period between the 2-digit date and 2-digit hour beginning, and 2-digit date and 2-digit hour ending time PROBability and 2-digit percent (30 or 40): probable condition in the period between the 2-digit date & 2-digit hour beginning time, and the 2-digit date and 2-digit hour ending time BECoMinG: change expected in the period between the 2-digit date and 2-digit hour beginning time, and the 2-digit date and 2-digit hour ending time RMK SLP045 T01820159 Table of Significant Present, Forecast and Recent Weather - Grouped in categories and used in the order listed below; or as needed in TAF, No Significant Weather. Qualifiers Intensity or Proximity “-” = Light No sign = Moderate “+” = Heavy “VC” = Vicinity, but not at aerodrome. In the US METAR, 5 to 10 SM from the point of observation. In the US TAF, 5 to 10 SM from the center of the runway complex. Elsewhere, within 8000m. Descriptor BC – Patches MI – Shallow BL – Blowing PR – Partial Weather Phenomena Precipitation DZ – Drizzle IC – Ice Crystals SN – Snow GR – Hail GS – Small Hail/Snow Pellets PL – Ice Pellets RA – Rain SG – Snow Grains UP – Unknown Precipitation in automated observations Obscuration BR – Mist (≥5/8SM) HZ – Haze DU – Widespread Dust PY – Spray Other DS – Dust Storm FC – Funnel Cloud PO – Well developed dust or sand whirls DR – Drifting SH – Showers FG – Fog (<5/8SM) SA – Sand FZ – Freezing TS – Thunderstorm FU – Smoke VA – Volcanic Ash +FC – Tornado or Waterspout SQ – Squall SS – Sandstorm - Explanations in parentheses “()” indicate different worldwide practices. - Ceiling is not specified; defined as the lowest broken or overcast layer, or the vertical visibility. - NWS TAFs exclude BECMG groups and temperature forecasts, NWS TAFS do not use PROB in the first 9 hours of a TAF; NWS METARs exclude trend forecasts. US Military TAFs include Turbulence and Icing groups. Meteorology 7−1−61 AIM 10/12/17 7−1−31. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Weather Formats (b) Nonroutine (Special) Aviation Weather Report (SPECI). The U.S. uses the ICAO world standard for aviation weather reporting and forecasting. The World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) publication No. 782 “Aerodrome Reports and Forecasts” contains the base METAR and TAF code as adopted by the WMO member countries. The type of report (METAR or SPECI) will always appear as the lead element of the report. a. Although the METAR code is adopted worldwide, each country is allowed to make modifications or exceptions to the code for use in their particular country, e.g., the U.S. will continue to use statute miles for visibility, feet for RVR values, knots for wind speed, and inches of mercury for altimetry. However, temperature and dew point will be reported in degrees Celsius. The U.S reports prevailing visibility rather than lowest sector visibility. The elements in the body of a METAR report are separated with a space. The only exceptions are RVR, temperature, and dew point which are separated with a solidus (/). When an element does not occur, or cannot be observed, the preceding space and that element are omitted from that particular report. A METAR report contains the following sequence of elements in the following order: 1. Type of report. 2. ICAO Station Identifier. 3. Date and time of report. 4. Modifier (as required). 5. Wind. 6. Visibility. 7. Runway Visual Range (RVR). 8. Weather phenomena. 9. Sky conditions. 10. Temperature/dew point group. 11. Altimeter. 12. Remarks (RMK). b. The following paragraphs describe the elements in a METAR report. 1. Type of report. There are two types of report: (a) Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR); and 7−1−62 2. ICAO Station Identifier. The METAR code uses ICAO 4−letter station identifiers. In the contiguous 48 States, the 3−letter domestic station identifier is prefixed with a “K;” i.e., the domestic identifier for Seattle is SEA while the ICAO identifier is KSEA. Elsewhere, the first two letters of the ICAO identifier indicate what region of the world and country (or state) the station is in. For Alaska, all station identifiers start with “PA;” for Hawaii, all station identifiers start with “PH.” Canadian station identifiers start with “CU,” “CW,” “CY,” and “CZ.” Mexican station identifiers start with “MM.” The identifier for the western Caribbean is “M” followed by the individual country’s letter; i.e., Cuba is “MU;” Dominican Republic “MD;” the Bahamas “MY.” The identifier for the eastern Caribbean is “T” followed by the individual country’s letter; i.e., Puerto Rico is “TJ.” For a complete worldwide listing see ICAO Document 7910, Location Indicators. 3. Date and Time of Report. The date and time the observation is taken are transmitted as a six−digit date/time group appended with Z to denote Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The first two digits are the date followed with two digits for hour and two digits for minutes. EXAMPLE− 172345Z (the 17 th day of the month at 2345Z) 4. Modifier (As Required). “AUTO” identifies a METAR/SPECI report as an automated weather report with no human intervention. If “AUTO” is shown in the body of the report, the type of sensor equipment used at the station will be encoded in the remarks section of the report. The absence of “AUTO” indicates that a report was made manually by an observer or that an automated report had human augmentation/backup. The modifier “COR” indicates a corrected report that is sent out to replace an earlier report with an error. NOTE− There are two types of automated stations, AO1 for automated weather reporting stations without a precipitation discriminator, and AO2 for automated stations with a precipitation discriminator. (A precipitation discriminator can determine the difference between liquid and frozen/freezing precipitation). This information appears in the remarks section of an automated report. Meteorology 10/12/17 5. Wind. The wind is reported as a five digit group (six digits if speed is over 99 knots). The first three digits are the direction the wind is blowing from, in tens of degrees referenced to true north, or “VRB” if the direction is variable. The next two digits is the wind speed in knots, or if over 99 knots, the next three digits. If the wind is gusty, it is reported as a “G” after the speed followed by the highest gust reported. The abbreviation “KT” is appended to denote the use of knots for wind speed. EXAMPLE− 13008KT − wind from 130 degrees at 8 knots 08032G45KT − wind from 080 degrees at 32 knots with gusts to 45 knots VRB04KT − wind variable in direction at 4 knots 00000KT − wind calm 210103G130KT − wind from 210 degrees at 103 knots with gusts to 130 knots If the wind direction is variable by 60 degrees or more and the speed is greater than 6 knots, a variable group consisting of the extremes of the wind direction separated by a “v” will follow the prevailing wind group. 32012G22KT 280V350 (a) Peak Wind. Whenever the peak wind exceeds 25 knots “PK WND” will be included in Remarks, e.g., PK WND 28045/1955 “Peak wind two eight zero at four five occurred at one niner five five.” If the hour can be inferred from the report time, only the minutes will be appended, e.g., PK WND 34050/38 “Peak wind three four zero at five zero occurred at three eight past the hour.” (b) Wind shift. Whenever a wind shift occurs, “WSHFT” will be included in remarks followed by the time the wind shift began, e.g., WSHFT 30 FROPA “Wind shift at three zero due to frontal passage.” 6. Visibility. Prevailing visibility is reported in statute miles with “SM” appended to it. EXAMPLE− 7SM − seven statute miles 15SM − fifteen statute miles 1/ SM − one−half statute mile 2 (a) Tower/surface visibility. If either visibility (tower or surface) is below four statute miles, Meteorology AIM the lesser of the two will be reported in the body of the report; the greater will be reported in remarks. (b) Automated visibility. ASOS/AWSS visibility stations will show visibility 10 or greater than 10 miles as “10SM.” AWOS visibility stations will show visibility less than 1/4 statute mile as “M1/4SM” and visibility 10 or greater than 10 miles as “10SM.” NOTE− Automated sites that are augmented by human observer to meet service level requirements can report 0, 1/16 SM, and 1/8 SM visibility increments. (c) Variable visibility. Variable visibility is shown in remarks (when rapid increase or decrease by 1/2 statute mile or more and the average prevailing visibility is less than three miles) e.g., VIS 1V2 “visibility variable between one and two.” (d) Sector visibility. Sector visibility is shown in remarks when it differs from the prevailing visibility, and either the prevailing or sector visibility is less than three miles. EXAMPLE− VIS N2 − visibility north two 7. Runway Visual Range (When Reported). “R” identifies the group followed by the runway heading (and parallel runway designator, if needed) “/” and the visual range in feet (meters in other countries) followed with “FT” (feet is not spoken). (a) Variability Values. When RVR varies (by more than on reportable value), the lowest and highest values are shown with “V” between them. (b) Maximum/Minimum Range. “P” indicates an observed RVR is above the maximum value for this system (spoken as “more than”). “M” indicates an observed RVR is below the minimum value which can be determined by the system (spoken as “less than”). EXAMPLE− R32L/1200FT − runway three two left R−V−R one thousand two hundred. R27R/M1000V4000FT − runway two seven right R−V−R variable from less than one thousand to four thousand. 7−1−63 AIM 8. Weather Phenomena. The weather as reported in the METAR code represents a significant change in the way weather is currently reported. In METAR, weather is reported in the format: Intensity/Proximity/Descriptor/Precipitation/Obstruction to visibility/Other NOTE− The “/” above and in the following descriptions (except as the separator between the temperature and dew point) are for separation purposes in this publication and do not appear in the actual METARs. (a) Intensity applies only to the first type of precipitation reported. A “−” denotes light, no symbol denotes moderate, and a “+” denotes heavy. (b) Proximity applies to and reported only for weather occurring in the vicinity of the airport (between 5 and 10 miles of the point(s) of observation). It is denoted by the letters “VC.” (Intensity and “VC” will not appear together in the weather group). (c) Descriptor. These eight descriptors apply to the precipitation or obstructions to visibility: TS . . . thunderstorm DR . . . low drifting SH . . . showers MI . . . shallow FZ . . . freezing BC . . . patches BL . . . blowing PR . . . partial NOTE− Although “TS” and “SH” are used with precipitation and may be preceded with an intensity symbol, the intensity still applies to the precipitation, not the descriptor. (d) Precipitation. There are nine types of precipitation in the METAR code: RA . . . rain DZ . . . drizzle SN . . . snow GR . . . hail (1/4” or greater) GS . . . small hail/snow pellets PL . . . ice pellets SG . . . snow grains IC . . . ice crystals (diamond dust) UP . . . unknown precipitation (automated stations only) 7−1−64 10/12/17 (e) Obstructions to visibility. There are eight types of obscuration phenomena in the METAR code (obscurations are any phenomena in the atmosphere, other than precipitation, that reduce horizontal visibility): FG . . . fog (vsby less than 5/8 mile) HZ . . . haze FU . . . smoke PY . . . spray BR . . . mist (vsby 5/8 − 6 miles) SA . . . sand DU . . . dust VA . . . volcanic ash NOTE− Fog (FG) is observed or forecast only when the visibility is less than five−eighths of mile, otherwise mist (BR) is observed or forecast. (f) Other. There are five categories of other weather phenomena which are reported when they occur: SQ . . . squall SS . . . sandstorm DS . . . duststorm PO . . . dust/sand whirls FC . . . funnel cloud +FC . . . tornado/waterspout Examples: TSRA . . . thunderstorm with moderate rain +SN . . . heavy snow −RA FG . . . light rain and fog BRHZ . . . mist and haze (visibility 5/8 mile or greater) FZDZ . . . freezing drizzle VCSH . . . rain shower in the vicinity +SHRASNPL . . heavy rain showers, snow, ice pellets (intensity indicator refers to the predominant rain) 9. Sky Condition. The sky condition as reported in METAR represents a significant change from the way sky condition is currently reported. In METAR, sky condition is reported in the format: Amount/Height/(Type) or Indefinite Ceiling/Height Meteorology 10/12/17 (a) Amount. The amount of sky cover is reported in eighths of sky cover, using the contractions: SKC . . . clear (no clouds) FEW . . . >0 to 2/8 SCT . . . scattered (3/8s to 4/8s of clouds) BKN . . . broken (5/8s to 7/8s of clouds) OVC . . . overcast (8/8s clouds) CB . . . Cumulonimbus when present TCU . . . Towering cumulus when present NOTE− 1. “SKC” will be reported at manual stations. “CLR” will be used at automated stations when no clouds below 12,000 feet are reported. 2. A ceiling layer is not designated in the METAR code. For aviation purposes, the ceiling is the lowest broken or overcast layer, or vertical visibility into an obscuration. Also there is no provision for reporting thin layers in the METAR code. When clouds are thin, that layer must be reported as if it were opaque. (b) Height. Cloud bases are reported with three digits in hundreds of feet above ground level (AGL). (Clouds above 12,000 feet cannot be reported by an automated station). (c) (Type). If Towering Cumulus Clouds (TCU) or Cumulonimbus Clouds (CB) are present, they are reported after the height which represents their base. EXAMPLE− (Reported as) SCT025TCU BKN080 BKN250 (spoken as) “TWO THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED SCATTERED TOWERING CUMULUS, CEILING EIGHT THOUSAND BROKEN, TWO FIVE THOUSAND BROKEN.” (Reported as) SCT008 OVC012CB (spoken as) “EIGHT HUNDRED SCATTERED CEILING ONE THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED OVERCAST CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS.” (d) Vertical Visibility (indefinite ceiling height). The height into an indefinite ceiling is preceded by “VV” and followed by three digits indicating the vertical visibility in hundreds of feet. This layer indicates total obscuration. EXAMPLE− 1/ SM FG VV006 − visibility one eighth, fog, indefinite 8 ceiling six hundred. Meteorology AIM (e) Obscurations are reported when the sky is partially obscured by a ground−based phenomena by indicating the amount of obscuration as FEW, SCT, BKN followed by three zeros (000). In remarks, the obscuring phenomenon precedes the amount of obscuration and three zeros. EXAMPLE− BKN000 (in body) . . . “sky partially obscured” FU BKN000 (in remarks) . . . “smoke obscuring five− to seven−eighths of the sky” (f) When sky conditions include a layer aloft, other than clouds, such as smoke or haze the type of phenomena, sky cover and height are shown in remarks. EXAMPLE− BKN020 (in body) . . . “ceiling two thousand broken” RMK FU BKN020 . . . “broken layer of smoke aloft, based at two thousand” (g) Variable ceiling. When a ceiling is below three thousand and is variable, the remark “CIG” will be shown followed with the lowest and highest ceiling heights separated by a “V.” EXAMPLE− CIG 005V010 . . . “ceiling variable between five hundred and one thousand” (h) Second site sensor. When an automated station uses meteorological discontinuity sensors, remarks will be shown to identify site specific sky conditions which differ and are lower than conditions reported in the body. EXAMPLE− CIG 020 RY11 . . . “ceiling two thousand at runway one one” (i) Variable cloud layer. When a layer is varying in sky cover, remarks will show the variability range. If there is more than one cloud layer, the variable layer will be identified by including the layer height. EXAMPLE− SCT V BKN . . . “scattered layer variable to broken” BKN025 V OVC . . . “broken layer at two thousand five hundred variable to overcast” 7−1−65 AIM (j) Significant clouds. When significant clouds are observed, they are shown in remarks, along with the specified information as shown below: (1) Cumulonimbus (CB), or Cumulonimbus Mammatus (CBMAM), distance (if known), direction from the station, and direction of movement, if known. If the clouds are beyond 10 miles from the airport, DSNT will indicate distance. EXAMPLE− CB W MOV E . . . “cumulonimbus west moving east” CBMAM DSNT S . . . “cumulonimbus mammatus distant south” (2) Towering Cumulus (TCU), location, (if known), or direction from the station. EXAMPLE− TCU OHD . . . “towering cumulus overhead” TCU W . . . “towering cumulus west” (3) Altocumulus Castellanus (ACC), Stratocumulus Standing Lenticular (SCSL), Altocumulus Standing Lenticular (ACSL), Cirrocumulus Standing Lenticular (CCSL) or rotor clouds, describing the clouds (if needed) and the direction from the station. EXAMPLE− ACC W . . . “altocumulus castellanus west” ACSL SW−S . . . “standing lenticular altocumulus southwest through south” APRNT ROTOR CLD S “apparent rotor cloud south” CCSL OVR MT E . . . “standing lenticular cirrocumulus over the mountains east” 10. Temperature/Dew Point. Temperature and dew point are reported in two, two-digit groups in degrees Celsius, separated by a solidus (“/”). Temperatures below zero are prefixed with an “M.” If the temperature is available but the dew point is missing, the temperature is shown followed by a solidus. If the temperature is missing, the group is omitted from the report. EXAMPLE− 15/08 . . . “temperature one five, dew point 8” 00/M02 . . . “temperature zero, dew point minus 2” 7−1−66 10/12/17 M05/ . . . “temperature minus five, dew point missing” 11. Altimeter. Altimeter settings are reported in a four-digit format in inches of mercury prefixed with an “A” to denote the units of pressure. EXAMPLE− A2995 − “Altimeter two niner niner five” 12. Remarks. Remarks will be included in all observations, when appropriate. The contraction “RMK” denotes the start of the remarks section of a METAR report. Except for precipitation, phenomena located within 5 statute miles of the point of observation will be reported as at the station. Phenomena between 5 and 10 statute miles will be reported in the vicinity, “VC.” Precipitation not occurring at the point of observation but within 10 statute miles is also reported as in the vicinity, “VC.” Phenomena beyond 10 statute miles will be shown as distant, “DSNT.” Distances are in statute miles except for automated lightning remarks which are in nautical miles. Movement of clouds or weather will be indicated by the direction toward which the phenomena is moving. (a) There are two categories of remarks: guage. data. (1) Automated, manual, and plain lan(2) Additive and automated maintenance (b) Automated, Manual, and Plain Language. This group of remarks may be generated from either manual or automated weather reporting stations and generally elaborate on parameters reported in the body of the report. (Plain language remarks are only provided by manual stations). (1) Volcanic eruptions. (2) Tornado, Funnel Cloud, Waterspout. (3) Station Type (AO1 or AO2). (4) PK WND. (5) WSHFT (FROPA). (6) TWR VIS or SFC VIS. (7) VRB VIS. (8) Sector VIS. (9) VIS @ 2nd Site. Meteorology 10/12/17 AIM (10) Lightning. When lightning is observed at a manual location, the frequency and location is reported. When cloud−to−ground lightning is detected by an automated lightning detection system, such as ALDARS: [a] Within 5 nautical miles (NM) of the Airport Reference Point (ARP), it will be reported as “TS” in the body of the report with no remark; [b] Between 5 and 10 NM of the ARP, it will be reported as “VCTS” in the body of the report with no remark; [c] Beyond 10 but less than 30 NM of the ARP, it will be reported in remarks as “DSNT” followed by the direction from the ARP. EXAMPLE− LTG DSNT W or LTG DSNT ALQDS (11) Beginning/Ending of Precipitation/ TSTMS. (12) TSTM Location MVMT. (13) Hailstone Size (GR). (14) Virga. (15) VRB CIG (height). (16) Obscuration. (17) VRB Sky Condition. (18) Significant Cloud Types. (19) Ceiling Height 2nd Location. (20) PRESFR PRESRR. (21) Sea−Level Pressure. (22) ACFT Mishap (not transmitted). (23) NOSPECI. (24) SNINCR. (25) Other SIG Info. Data. (c) Additive and Automated Maintenance (1) Hourly Precipitation. (2) 3− and 6−Hour Precipitation Amount. (3) 24−Hour Precipitation. (4) Snow Depth on Ground. Meteorology (5) Water Equivalent of Snow. (6) Cloud Type. (7) Duration of Sunshine. (8) Hourly Temperature/Dew Point (Tenths). (9) 6−Hour Maximum Temperature. (10) 6−Hour Minimum Temperature. (11) 24−Hour Maximum/Minimum Temperature. (12) Pressure Tendency. (13) Sensor Status. PWINO FZRANO TSNO RVRNO PNO VISNO Examples of METAR reports and explanation: METAR KBNA 281250Z 33018KT 290V360 1/2SM R31/2700FT SN BLSN FG VV008 00/M03 A2991 RMK RAE42SNB42 METAR . . . aviation routine weather report KBNA . . . Nashville, TN 281250Z . . . date 28th, time 1250 UTC (no modifier) . . This is a manually generated report, due to the absence of “AUTO” and “AO1 or AO2” in remarks 33018KT . . . wind three three zero at one eight 290V360 . . . wind variable between two nine zero and three six zero 1/2SM . . . visibility one half R31/2700FT . . . Runway three one RVR two thousand seven hundred SN . . . moderate snow BLSN FG . . . visibility obscured by blowing snow and fog VV008 . . . indefinite ceiling eight hundred 00/M03 . . . temperature zero, dew point minus three A2991 . . . altimeter two niner niner one RMK . . . remarks 7−1−67 AIM 10/12/17 RAE42 . . . rain ended at four two SNB42 . . . snow began at four two METAR KSFO 041453Z AUTO VRB02KT 3SM BR CLR 15/12 A3012 RMK AO2 METAR . . . aviation routine weather report KSFO . . . San Francisco, CA 041453Z . . . date 4th, time 1453 UTC AUTO . . . fully automated; no human intervention VRB02KT . . . wind variable at two 3SM . . . visibility three BR . . . visibility obscured by mist CLR . . . no clouds below one two thousand 15/12 . . . temperature one five, dew point one two A3012 . . . altimeter three zero one two RMK . . . remarks AO2 . . . this automated station has a weather discriminator (for precipitation) SPECI KCVG 152224Z 28024G36KT 3/4SM +TSRA BKN008 OVC020CB 28/23 A3000 RMK TSRAB24 TS W MOV E SPECI . . . (nonroutine) aviation special weather report KCVG . . . Cincinnati, OH 152228Z . . . date 15th, time 2228 UTC (no modifier) . . This is a manually generated report due to the absence of “AUTO” and “AO1 or AO2” in remarks 28024G36KT . . wind two eight zero at two four gusts three six 3/4SM . . . visibility three fourths +TSRA . . . thunderstorms, heavy rain BKN008 ceiling eight hundred broken OVC020CB . . . two thousand overcast cumulonimbus clouds 28/23 . . . temperature two eight, dew point two three A3000 . . . altimeter three zero zero zero RMK . . . remarks TSRAB24 . . . thunderstorm and rain began at two four 7−1−68 TS W MOV E thunderstorm west moving east c. Aerodrome Forecast (TAF). A concise statement of the expected meteorological conditions at an airport during a specified period. At most locations, TAFs have a 24 hour forecast period. However, TAFs for some locations have a 30 hour forecast period. These forecast periods may be shorter in the case of an amended TAF. TAFs use the same codes as METAR weather reports. They are scheduled four times daily for 24−hour periods beginning at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, and 1800Z. Forecast times in the TAF are depicted in two ways. The first is a 6−digit number to indicate a specific point in time, consisting of a two−digit date, two−digit hour, and two−digit minute (such as issuance time or FM). The second is a pair of four−digit numbers separated by a “/” to indicate a beginning and end for a period of time. In this case, each four−digit pair consists of a two−digit date and a two−digit hour. TAFs are issued in the following format: TYPE OF REPORT/ICAO STATION IDENTIFIER/ DATE AND TIME OF ORIGIN/VALID PERIOD DATE AND TIME/FORECAST METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS NOTE− The “/” above and in the following descriptions are for separation purposes in this publication and do not appear in the actual TAFs. TAF KORD 051130Z 0512/0618 14008KT 5SM BR BKN030 TEMPO 0513/0516 1 1/2SM BR FM051600 16010KT P6SM SKC FM052300 20013G20KT 4SM SHRA OVC020 PROB40 0600/0606 2SM TSRA OVC008CB BECMG 0606/0608 21015KT P6SM NSW SCT040 TAF format observed in the above example: TAF = type of report KORD = ICAO station identifier 051130Z = date and time of origin (issuance time) 0512/0618 = valid period date and times 14008KT 5SM BR BKN030 = forecast meteorological conditions Explanation of TAF elements: Meteorology 10/12/17 1. Type of Report. There are two types of TAF issuances, a routine forecast issuance (TAF) and an amended forecast (TAF AMD). An amended TAF is issued when the current TAF no longer adequately describes the on-going weather or the forecaster feels the TAF is not representative of the current or expected weather. Corrected (COR) or delayed (RTD) TAFs are identified only in the communications header which precedes the actual forecasts. 2. ICAO Station Identifier. The TAF code uses ICAO 4−letter location identifiers as described in the METAR section. 3. Date and Time of Origin. This element is the date and time the forecast is actually prepared. The format is a two−digit date and four−digit time followed, without a space, by the letter “Z.” 4. Valid Period Date and Time. The UTC valid period of the forecast consists of two four−digit sets, separated by a “/”. The first four−digit set is a two−digit date followed by the two−digit beginning hour, and the second four−digit set is a two−digit date followed by the two−digit ending hour. Although most airports have a 24−hour TAF, a select number of airports have a 30−hour TAF. In the case of an amended forecast, or a forecast which is corrected or delayed, the valid period may be for less than 24 hours. Where an airport or terminal operates on a part−time basis (less than 24 hours/day), the TAFs issued for those locations will have the abbreviated statement “AMD NOT SKED” added to the end of the forecasts. The time observations are scheduled to end and/or resume will be indicated by expanding the AMD NOT SKED statement. Expanded statements will include: (a) Observation ending time (AFT DDHHmm; for example, AFT 120200) (b) Scheduled observations resumption time (TIL DDHHmm; for example, TIL 171200Z) or (c) Period of observation unavailability (DDHH/DDHH); for example, 2502/2512). 5. Forecast Meteorological Conditions. This is the body of the TAF. The basic format is: WIND/VISIBILITY/WEATHER/SKY CONDITION/OPTIONAL DATA (WIND SHEAR) The wind, visibility, and sky condition elements are always included in the initial time group of the forecast. Weather is included only if significant to Meteorology AIM aviation. If a significant, lasting change in any of the elements is expected during the valid period, a new time period with the changes is included. It should be noted that with the exception of a “FM” group the new time period will include only those elements which are expected to change, i.e., if a lowering of the visibility is expected but the wind is expected to remain the same, the new time period reflecting the lower visibility would not include a forecast wind. The forecast wind would remain the same as in the previous time period. Any temporary conditions expected during a specific time period are included with that time period. The following describes the elements in the above format. (a) Wind. This five (or six) digit group includes the expected wind direction (first 3 digits) and speed (last 2 digits or 3 digits if 100 knots or greater). The contraction “KT” follows to denote the units of wind speed. Wind gusts are noted by the letter “G” appended to the wind speed followed by the highest expected gust. A variable wind direction is noted by “VRB” where the three digit direction usually appears. A calm wind (3 knots or less) is forecast as “00000KT.” EXAMPLE− 18010KT . . . wind one eight zero at one zero (wind is blowing from 180). 35012G20KT . . wind three five zero at one two gust two zero. (b) Visibility. The expected prevailing visibility up to and including 6 miles is forecast in statute miles, including fractions of miles, followed by “SM” to note the units of measure. Expected visibilities greater than 6 miles are forecast as P6SM (plus six statute miles). EXAMPLE− 1/ SM − visibility one−half 2 4SM − visibility four P6SM − visibility more than six (c) Weather Phenomena. The expected weather phenomena is coded in TAF reports using the same format, qualifiers, and phenomena contractions as METAR reports (except UP). Obscurations to vision will be forecast whenever the prevailing visibility is forecast to be 6 statute miles or less. If no significant weather is expected to occur during a specific time period in the forecast, the weather phenomena group is omitted for that time period. If, after a time period in which significant weather phenomena has been forecast, a change to a forecast 7−1−69 AIM of no significant weather phenomena occurs, the contraction NSW (No Significant Weather) will appear as the weather group in the new time period. (NSW is included only in TEMPO groups). NOTE− It is very important that pilots understand that NSW only refers to weather phenomena, i.e., rain, snow, drizzle, etc. Omitted conditions, such as sky conditions, visibility, winds, etc., are carried over from the previous time group. (d) Sky Condition. TAF sky condition forecasts use the METAR format described in the METAR section. Cumulonimbus clouds (CB) are the only cloud type forecast in TAFs. When clear skies are forecast, the contraction “SKC” will always be used. The contraction “CLR” is never used in the TAF. When the sky is obscured due to a surface−based phenomenon, vertical visibility (VV) into the obscuration is forecast. The format for vertical visibility is “VV” followed by a three−digit height in hundreds of feet. NOTE− As in METAR, ceiling layers are not designated in the TAF code. For aviation purposes, the ceiling is the lowest broken or overcast layer or vertical visibility into a complete obscuration. SKC . . . “sky clear” SCT005 BKN025CB . “five hundred scattered, ceiling two thousand five hundred broken cumulonimbus clouds” VV008 . . . “indefinite ceiling eight hundred” (e) Optional Data (Wind Shear). Wind shear is the forecast of nonconvective low level winds (up to 2,000 feet). The forecast includes the letters “WS” followed by the height of the wind shear, the wind direction and wind speed at the indicated height and the ending letters “KT” (knots). Height is given in hundreds of feet (AGL) up to and including 2,000 feet. Wind shear is encoded with the contraction “WS,” followed by a three−digit height, slant character “/,” and winds at the height indicated in the same format as surface winds. The wind shear element is omitted if not expected to occur. WS010/18040KT − “LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR AT ONE THOUSAND, WIND ONE EIGHT ZERO AT FOUR ZERO” d. Probability Forecast. The probability or chance of thunderstorms or other precipitation events 7−1−70 10/12/17 occurring, along with associated weather conditions (wind, visibility, and sky conditions). The PROB30 group is used when the occurrence of thunderstorms or precipitation is 30−39% and the PROB40 group is used when the occurrence of thunderstorms or precipitation is 40−49%. This is followed by two four−digit groups separated by a “/”, giving the beginning date and hour, and the ending date and hour of the time period during which the thunderstorms or precipitation are expected. NOTE− NWS does not use PROB 40 in the TAF. However U.S. Military generated TAFS may include PROB40. PROB30 will not be shown during the first nine hours of a NWS forecast. EXAMPLE− PROB40 2221/2302 1/2 SM +TSRA “chance between 2100Z and 0200Z of visibility one−half statute mile in thunderstorms and heavy rain.” PROB30 3010/3014 1SM RASN . “chance between 1000Z and 1400Z of visibility one statute mile in mixed rain and snow.” e. Forecast Change Indicators. The following change indicators are used when either a rapid, gradual, or temporary change is expected in some or all of the forecast meteorological conditions. Each change indicator marks a time group within the TAF report. 1. From (FM) group. The FM group is used when a rapid change, usually occurring in less than one hour, in prevailing conditions is expected. Typically, a rapid change of prevailing conditions to more or less a completely new set of prevailing conditions is associated with a synoptic feature passing through the terminal area (cold or warm frontal passage). Appended to the “FM” indicator is the six−digit date, hour, and minute the change is expected to begin and continues until the next change group or until the end of the current forecast. A “FM” group will mark the beginning of a new line in a TAF report (indented 5 spaces). Each “FM” group contains all the required elements−wind, visibility, weather, and sky condition. Weather will be omitted in “FM” groups when it is not significant to aviation. FM groups will not include the contraction NSW. Meteorology 10/12/17 EXAMPLE− FM210100 14010KT P6SM SKC − “after 0100Z on the 21st, wind one four zero at one zero, visibility more than six, sky clear.” 2. Becoming (BECMG) group. The BECMG group is used when a gradual change in conditions is expected over a longer time period, usually two hours. The time period when the change is expected is two four−digit groups separated by a “/”, with the beginning date and hour, and ending date and hour of the change period which follows the BECMG indicator. The gradual change will occur at an unspecified time within this time period. Only the changing forecast meteorological conditions are included in BECMG groups. The omitted conditions are carried over from the previous time group. NOTE− The NWS does not use BECMG in the TAF. EXAMPLE− OVC012 BECMG 0114/0116 BKN020 − “ceiling one thousand two hundred overcast. Then a gradual change to ceiling two thousand broken between 1400Z on the 1st and 1600Z on the 1st.” Meteorology AIM 3. Temporary (TEMPO) group. The TEMPO group is used for any conditions in wind, visibility, weather, or sky condition which are expected to last for generally less than an hour at a time (occasional), and are expected to occur during less than half the time period. The TEMPO indicator is followed by two four−digit groups separated by a “/”. The first four digit group gives the beginning date and hour, and the second four digit group gives the ending date and hour of the time period during which the temporary conditions are expected. Only the changing forecast meteorological conditions are included in TEMPO groups. The omitted conditions are carried over from the previous time group. EXAMPLE− 1. SCT030 TEMPO 0519/0523 BKN030 − “three thousand scattered with occasional ceilings three thousand broken between 1900Z on the 5th and 2300Z on the 5th.” 2. 4SM HZ TEMPO 1900/1906 2SM BR HZ − “visibility four in haze with occasional visibility two in mist and haze between 0000Z on the 19th and 0600Z on the 19th.” 7−1−71