Pilot/Controller Glossary 3/29/18 L LAA− (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) LAAS− (See LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM.) LAHSO− An acronym for “Land and Hold Short Operation.” These operations include landing and holding short of an intersecting runway, a taxiway, a predetermined point, or an approach/departure flightpath. LAHSO-DRY− Land and hold short operations on runways that are dry. LAHSO-WET− Land and hold short operations on runways that are wet (but not contaminated). LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS− Operations which include simultaneous takeoffs and landings and/or simultaneous landings when a landing aircraft is able and is instructed by the controller to hold-short of the intersecting runway/ taxiway or designated hold-short point. Pilots are expected to promptly inform the controller if the hold short clearance cannot be accepted. (See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.) (Refer to AIM.) LAND−BASED AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)− An ADIZ over U.S. metropolitan areas, which is activated and deactivated as needed, with dimensions, activation dates, and other relevant information disseminated via NOTAM. (See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.) LANDING AREA− Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. (See ICAO term LANDING AREA.) LANDING AREA [ICAO]− That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR− A device which visually indicates the direction in which landings and takeoffs should be made. (See TETRAHEDRON.) (Refer to AIM.) LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE (LDA)− The runway length declared available and suitable for a landing airplane. (See ICAO term LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.) LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. LANDING MINIMUMS− The minimum visibility prescribed for landing a civil aircraft while using an instrument approach procedure. The minimum applies with other limitations set forth in 14 CFR Part 91 with respect to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) prescribed in the instrument approach procedures as follows: a. Straight-in landing minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility, or DH and visibility, required for a straight-in landing on a specified runway, or b. Circling minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility required for the circle-to-land maneuver. Note: Descent below the MDA or DH must meet the conditions stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175. (See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.) (See DECISION HEIGHT.) (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.) (See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.) (See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.) (See VISIBILITY.) (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) LANDING ROLL− The distance from the point of touchdown to the point where the aircraft can be brought to a stop or exit the runway. LANDING SEQUENCE− The order in which aircraft are positioned for landing. (See APPROACH SEQUENCE.) LAST ASSIGNED ALTITUDE− The last altitude/ flight level assigned by ATC and acknowledged by the pilot. (See MAINTAIN.) (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) PCG L−1 Pilot/Controller Glossary LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV)– A function of area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates, displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or path. LATERAL SEPARATION− The lateral spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by requiring operation on different routes or in different geographical locations. (See SEPARATION.) LDA− (See LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID.) (See LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.) (See ICAO Term LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.) LF− (See LOW FREQUENCY.) LIGHTED AIRPORT− An airport where runway and obstruction lighting is available. (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.) (Refer to AIM.) LIGHT GUN− A handheld directional light signaling device which emits a brilliant narrow beam of white, green, or red light as selected by the tower controller. The color and type of light transmitted can be used to approve or disapprove anticipated pilot actions where radio communication is not available. The light gun is used for controlling traffic operating in the vicinity of the airport and on the airport movement area. (Refer to AIM.) LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT (LSA)− An FAA-registered aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered-lift, that meets certain weight and performance. Principally it is a single−engine aircraft with a maximum of two seats and weighing no more than 1,430 pounds if intended for operation on water, or 1,320 pounds if not. It must be of simple design (fixed landing gear (except if intended for operations on water or a glider), piston powered, nonpressurized, with a fixed or ground adjustable propeller). Performance is also limited to a maximum airspeed in level flight of not more than 120 knots calibrated airspeed (CAS), have a maximum never-exceed speed of not more than 120 knots CAS for a glider, and have a maximum stalling speed, without the use of lift-enhancing devices of not more than 45 knots CAS. It may be certificated as either Experimental LSA or as a Special LSA aircraft. A PCG L−2 3/29/18 minimum of a sport pilot certificate is required to operate light-sport aircraft. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 1, §1.1.) LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)− Used by ATC to inform a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway to line up and wait. It is not authorization for takeoff. It is used when takeoff clearance cannot immediately be issued because of traffic or other reasons. (See CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.) LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY (LAA)− A service available only in Alaska and provided by facilities that are located on the landing airport, have a discrete ground−to−air communication frequency or the tower frequency when the tower is closed, automated weather reporting with voice broadcasting, and a continuous ASOS/AWSS/AWOS data display, other continuous direct reading instruments, or manual observations available to the specialist. (See AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA.) LOCAL TRAFFIC− Aircraft operating in the traffic pattern or within sight of the tower, or aircraft known to be departing or arriving from flight in local practice areas, or aircraft executing practice instrument approaches at the airport. (See TRAFFIC PATTERN.) LOCALIZER− The component of an ILS which provides course guidance to the runway. (See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.) (See ICAO term LOCALIZER COURSE.) (Refer to AIM.) LOCALIZER COURSE [ICAO]− The locus of points, in any given horizontal plane, at which the DDM (difference in depth of modulation) is zero. LOCALIZER OFFSET− An angular offset of the localizer aligned within 3_ of the runway alignment. LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID (LDA)− A localizer with an angular offset that exceeds 3_ of the runway alignment, used for nonprecision instrument approaches with utility and accuracy comparable to a localizer, but which are not part of a complete ILS. (Refer to AIM.) LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID (LDA) PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM) APPROACH− An approach, which includes a glideslope, used in conjunction with an ILS PRM, RNAV PRM or GLS PRM approach to an adjacent runway to conduct Simultaneous Offset Instrument Pilot/Controller Glossary 3/29/18 Approaches (SOIA) to parallel runways whose centerlines are separated by less than 3,000 feet and at least 750 feet. NTZ monitoring is required to conduct these approaches. (See SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT APPROACH (SOIA).) (Refer to AIM) LOCALIZER USABLE DISTANCE− The maximum distance from the localizer transmitter at a specified altitude, as verified by flight inspection, at which reliable course information is continuously received. (Refer to AIM.) LOCATOR [ICAO]− An LM/MF NDB used as an aid to final approach. Note: A locator usually has an average radius of rated coverage of between 18.5 and 46.3 km (10 and 25 NM). LONG RANGE NAVIGATION− (See LORAN.) LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION− The longitudinal spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by a minimum distance expressed in units of time or miles. (See SEPARATION.) (Refer to AIM.) LORAN− An electronic navigational system by which hyperbolic lines of position are determined by measuring the difference in the time of reception of synchronized pulse signals from two fixed transmitters. Loran A operates in the 1750-1950 kHz frequency band. Loran C and D operate in the 100-110 kHz frequency band. In 2010, the U.S. Coast Guard terminated all U.S. LORAN-C transmissions. (Refer to AIM.) LOST COMMUNICATIONS− Loss of the ability to communicate by radio. Aircraft are sometimes referred to as NORDO (No Radio). Standard pilot procedures are specified in 14 CFR Part 91. Radar controllers issue procedures for pilots to follow in the event of lost communications during a radar approach when weather reports indicate that an aircraft will likely encounter IFR weather conditions during the approach. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) (Refer to AIM.) LOST LINK (LL)− An interruption or loss of the control link, or when the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft and, as a result, the UA will perform a predictable or planned maneuver. Loss of command and control link between the Control Station and the aircraft. There are two types of links: a. An uplink which transmits command instructions to the aircraft, and b. A downlink which transmits the status of the aircraft and provides situational awareness to the pilot. LOST LINK PROCEDURE− Preprogrammed or predetermined mitigations to ensure the continued safe operation of the UA in the event of a lost link (LL). In the event positive link cannot be established, flight termination must be implemented. LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE− The network of airways serving aircraft operations up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. (See AIRWAY.) (Refer to AIM.) LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY− (See SAFETY ALERT.) LOW APPROACH− An approach over an airport or runway following an instrument approach or a VFR approach including the go-around maneuver where the pilot intentionally does not make contact with the runway. (Refer to AIM.) LOW FREQUENCY (LF)− The frequency band between 30 and 300 kHz. (Refer to AIM.) LOCALIZER PERFOMRNACE WITH VERTICAL GUIDANCE (LPV)− A type of approach with vertical guidance (APV) based on WAAS, published on RNAV (GPS) approach charts. This procedure takes advantage of the precise lateral guidance available from WAAS. The minima is published as a decision altitude (DA). LUAW− (See LINE UP AND WAIT.) PCG L−3