§ 121.439 – Pilot qualification: Recent experience.
(a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flight crewmember, unless within the preceding 90 days, that person has made at least three takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve. The takeoffs and landings required by this paragraph may be performed in a visual simulator approved under § 121.407 to include takeoff and landing maneuvers. In addition, any person who fails to make the three required takeoffs and landings within any consecutive 90-day period must reestablish recency of experience as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) In addition to meeting all applicable training and checking requirements of this part, a required pilot flight crewmember who has not met the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section must reestablish recency of experience as follows:
(1) Under the supervision of a check airman, make at least three takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve or in an advanced simulator or visual simulator. When a visual simulator is used, the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section must be met.
(2) The takeoffs and landings required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must include—
(i) At least one takeoff with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant;
(ii) At least one landing from an ILS approach to the lowest ILS minimum authorized for the certificate holder; and
(iii) At least one landing to a full stop.
(c) A required pilot flight crewmember who performs the manuvers prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section in a visual simulator must—
(1) Have previously logged 100 hours of flight time in the same type airplane in which he is to serve;
(2) Be observed on the first two landings made in operations under this part by an approved check airman who acts as pilot in command and occupies a pilot seat. The landings must be made in weather minimums that are not less than those contained in the certificate holder's operations specifications for Category I Operations, and must be made within 45 days following completion of simulator training.
(d) When using a simulator to accomplish any of the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each required flight crewmember position must be occupied by an appropriately qualified person and the simulator must be operated as if in a normal in-flight environment without use of the repositioning features of the simulator.
(e) A check airman who observes the takeoffs and landings prescribed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (c) of this section shall certify that the person being observed is proficient and qualified to perform flight duty in operations under this part and may require any additional maneuvers that are determined necessary to make this certifying statement.
(f) Deviation authority based upon designation of related aircraft in accordance with § 121.418(b).
(1) The Administrator may authorize a deviation from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section based upon a designation of related aircraft in accordance with § 121.418(b) of this part and a determination that the certificate holder can demonstrate an equivalent level of safety.
(2) A request for deviation from paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted to the Administrator. The request must include the following:
(i) Identification of aircraft operated by the certificate holder designated as related aircraft.
(ii) The number of takeoffs, landings, maneuvers, and procedures necessary to maintain or reestablish recency based on review of the related aircraft, the operation, and the duty position.
(3) The administrator may, at any time, terminate a grant of deviation authority issued under this paragraph (f).