§ 121.412 – Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

[Doc. No. 28471, 61 FR 30742, June 17, 1996; 61 FR 34927, July 3, 1996; 62 FR 3739, Jan. 24, 1997; Amdt. 121-264, 62 FR 23120, Apr. 28, 1997; Amdt. 121-344, 74 FR 34235, July 15, 2009; Amdt. 121-355, 76 FR 35104, June 16, 2011; Amdt. 121-366, 78 FR 67837, Nov. 12, 2013]

(a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414:

(1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane.

(2) A flight instructor (simulator) is a person who is qualified to instruct, but only in a flight simulator, in a flight training device, or both, for a particular type airplane.

(3) Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator) are those instructors who perform the functions described in § 121.401(a)(4).

(b) No certificate holder may use a person nor may any person serve as a flight instructor (airplane) in a training program established under this subpart unless, with respect to the airplane type involved, that person—

(1) Holds the airman certificates and rating required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part;

(2) Has satisfactorily completed the appropriate training phases for the airplane, including recurrent training, that are required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part;

(3) Has satisfactorily completed the appropriate proficiency or flight checks that are required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part;

(4) Has satisfactorily completed the applicable training requirements of § 121.414, including in-flight training and practice for initial and transition training;

(5) Holds at least a Class III medical certificate unless serving as a required crewmember, in which case holds a Class I or a Class II medical certificate as appropriate; and

(6) Has satisfied the recency of experience requirements of § 121.439 of this part, as applicable.

(c) No certificate holder may use a person, nor may any person serve as a flight instructor (simulator) in a training program established under this subpart, unless, with respect to the airplane type involved, that person meets the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, or—

(1) Holds the airman certificates and ratings, except medical certificate, required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part;

(2) Has satisfactorily completed the appropriate training phases for the airplane, including recurrent training, that are required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part;

(3) Has satisfactorily completed the appropriate proficiency or flight checks that are required to serve as a pilot in command or flight engineer, as applicable, in operations under this part; and

(4) Has satisfactorily completed the applicable training requirements of § 121.414.

(d) Completion of the requirements in paragraphs (b) (2), (3), and (4) or (c) (2), (3), and (4) of this section as applicable shall be entered in the individual's training record maintained by the certificate holder.

(e) Flight instructors who have reached their 65th birthday or who do not hold an appropriate medical certificate may function as flight instructors, but may not serve as pilot flightcrew members in operations under this part.

(f) A flight instructor (simulator) must accomplish the following—

(1) Fly at least two flight segments as a required crewmember for the type of airplane within the 12-month period preceding the performance of any flight instructor duty in a flight simulator (and must hold a Class I or Class II medical certificate as appropriate); or

(2) Satisfactorily complete an approved line-observation program within the period prescribed by that program preceding the performance of any flight instructor duty in a flight simulator.

(g) The flight segments or line-observation program required in paragraph (f) of this section is considered completed in the month required if completed in the calendar month before, or the calendar month after the month in which it is due.